HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
8.VIJAYNAGAR EMPIRE-(133-1565 A.D.) It was founded at the instance of Swami Vidyaranya on the banks of River Tungabhadra. Hampi was the capital city of the empire. It was ruled by 4 dynasties i. Sangama (1336-1485) ii. Saluva (1485- 1505) iii. Tuluva (1505- 1570) iv. Araveeti (1570- 1643) Sangama Dynasty: Hariharara and Bukka were the court commanders of Prataparudra of Warangal (Kakatiya dynasty). At the foundation of the empire, they were in the court of Veeraballala of the Hoysala dynasty Harihara became the 1st ruler of the dynasty. He was defeated by Allahuddin Hassan of the Bahmani Empire. The main cause for the frequent wars between Bahmanis and Vijaynagar empire was the control over Raichur Doab, the land between Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers -> Bukka was the second king and sent a delegation of merchants to China. His daughter-in-law Gangadevi wrote Maduravijayam (the conquest of Madura by her husband Veerakamparaya) -Devaraya I constructed a dam on river Tungabhadra at Hampi. According to Persian chronicler Perista, he was defeated by Tajuddin Feroz, the Bahmani Sultan in the Battle of Mudgal, fought for the sake of Nahal who was a beautiful daughter of a blacksmith of Raichur.
Tuluva Dynasty It was founded by Tuluva Narasanayaka. Sri Krishnadevaraya, second son of Narasa was the greatest in the whole history of the South. . In 1509 he defeated Adil Shaha of Bijapur and took the title of Yavanarajasthapanacharya. . In 1510 he entered into a treaty with the Portuguese govemor Albuquerque. Portuguese agreed to supply horses and saltpetr 'from Persia, and to train Vijayanagar artillery. In retur. Krishnadevaraya promised to shift Goa from the control of Sultan of Bijapur to the Portuguese. In 1511 he defeated Prataparudra Gajapti of Kalinga, destroyed capital city Cuttack, married his daughter Annapurna and installed victory pillars at Simhachalam and Patnur. . Battle of Talikota Or Rakasi - Tangadi Battle fought in 1565- It ended the glory of Vijayanagar Empire. It was a battle between the forces of Vijayanagar commanded by Aliya Rama Raya and the Bahmani confederacy commanded by Hussain sah of Ahmad nagar .The main cause of the war was Aliya's foreign policy of divide and rule. Except Berar, all the other four states of the confederacy participated. Sadashivaraya was the king of Hampi during the war.Pvrittn
Araveeti Dynasy It was founded by Tirumalaraya, the brother of Aliya Ranaraya. Venkatapatiraya II, the greatest of the dynasty. He defied Akbar and shifted the capital city from Chandragiri to Vellore. He also constructed a church for the Portuguese at Vellore. In 1643 the dynasty ended when Mir Jumla the PM of Golconda (Hyderabad) occupied Vellore. Vijaynagar Administration Rayasam was the Secretariat which was headed by Chief Secretary Mahanayakacharya. The 'Nayaka'system was the system of civil servants. The Nayakas discharged civil and military functions on behalf of the emperor and in return were given lands called Amarams.At the village level, a system of 12 village functionaries was introduced called Ayagars. They were given rent free lands called Mirasi (for their own subsistence). Athavana was the revenue department which was headed by Mahakaranikam(Finance Minister). Kandachera was the military department headed by Chief Commander called Mahadandnayaka.Kavaliga was the police officer who was incharge of internal security.
Vijayanagar Society Fernao Nuniz, a Portuguese traveler gives detailed account of Vijayanagar society and gives a graphic description about Sati and talks about prostitution. He refers to a tax called Seethasunkam on brothel houses.Krishnadevaraya abolished the system called Kanyasulkam i.e., the system of purchasing brides. Vijayanagar Economy Bhatkal on the West Coast and Masola or Machilipatnam on the East Coast (A.P.) were the two important ports. Horses were imported from Persia. Amuktamalyada, a text writen by Krishnadevaraya talks about horse trade. Kalankari textiles (printed cloth) were exported from Masola. Srikalahasthi was the other centre. Golconda and Vajrakarur were famous for diamond industry. The popular guilds were Panchamavaru (association of five craftsmen) and Kaikollas (guild of weavers) Land tax that was the major source of revenue was called Sist. Nuniz tells us that it was 9/10h of the produce
Vijayanagar Culture The Vijayanagar style of architecture is characterized by: 1. Kalyanamandapas which were the marriage halls within the temple complex. 2. Ammangudi refered to the temple for the consort of the lord. Both were built within the temple complex. Krishnadevaraya constructed the Hazar Rama temple in Hampi with 1000 Ramayan sculptures. Padma Mahal that was constructed by him in Hampi is the best example of Indo-Islamic architecture.
Art and Music The Carnatic music tradition developed during this age. Swami Vidyaranya wrote Sangeetha Saraswam. Mahanataka Sudhanidhi writtin by Praudadevaraya also deals with music. The trio of Camatic music Muthuswamy Dikshitar, Shyamashastri and Thygaraj belonged to the court of Tanjore. Dance- Bharatanatyam, the most popular dance form was introduced by Bharata Muni. He wrote ayana Suryo Natvashastra which consists of the deatailed exposition of Bharatnatyam. de uboped in tha viuape The other popular dance forms were -Kuchipudi, introduced by Siddendra Yogj Perininatyam Ku (the tribal dance form of Katatiyas); Yakshaganam (the dance form with the themes exclusively iti mai derived from Bhagavatam), Iniw awably ou th Hu oJu a d tama LA , terature Vijayanagar age is considered the golden age of Telugu and Kannada literature. Astadiggajas Bhama meaning the eight great scholars/literary giants were present in the court of Krishnadevaraya. -kalopam