HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
Art forms -comprised of Seals, pottery (especially BPW i.e. Black Polished Ware characterized by was war pa glossy, shiny appearance with pictures) and terracotta figurines. 1. Seals: they were the most beautiful of all Indus Valley art forms. Made of sandstone, soft rocks called size of Re.l coin. About 2000 is of Humpless Bull. Seals especially the ones found in Mesopotamia are important for fixing the chronology of Indus Valley with relation to other civilaztions. steatite procured from Vindhyas; seals were made in almost all shapes and in the Indus Valley seals were found. The most common representation 2. Terracotta Figures r They were the figures made of clay, mainly dolls for kids. >Mest e neeni mant Cult of Mother Goddess is clearly evident through these figurines. ela
3. Images ano Most beautiful of all the images found is that of a Bronze Dancing Girl at Mo 4. Script The Harappan people used a Pictographic (Language of pictures) script, written in a style called Bostophedon (right to left, left to right, and again right to left and so on). More than 400 pictographs have been used. The first pictograph was found in 1853. Pictography is claimed to ed by I Mahadevan but so far the script remains undeciphered Six races can be traced in the Indus Valley Zone : this race is regarded as architect of IVC. This is because their ethnic features are found in majority of the skeletons. Australoid Mongoloids Nigroloids Alpinoloids Meditteraneans
There are different theories that try to explain the decline of Indus Valley Civilizatio However, it must be kept in mind that the decline could very much have taken place due to combination of the following factors Tv c dt die Pro Aran invasion. ICO 2. Destruction ofsites due to floods. 3 Tectonic forces/earthquakes. 4. Ecological changes caused due to extensive deforestation, expansion of desert, salinisation of soil etc. It is also argued that land was not conducive for cultivation and therefore the civilization was not destroyed but deserted.
Vedic Civilization The word ' and were an agglomeration of many races. Originally the home of Aryans was Central Aryan' is not a racial term, but a linguistic term. They spoke Indo-European language Asia or icularly the steppes. The migration of Aryans started around 1700 B.C possibly due of Aryan migration from Central to ecological reasons. They depended largely on pasture lands Max Muller was one of the major proponents of the theory Asia. He had studied Vedas and translated them into German language. He was a philologist (lPhilology is the Study of Comparative Language), Indologist (one who studies Indo-Furopean Language) and said that Aryans in India developed Sanskrit & Aryans in Europe developed all other European languages. He laid his arguments on the many similarities between Sanskrit and European languages especially English. He proposed that when economy and ecology underwent changes, one branch moved towards west and settled in Europe, while the other moved toward east and settled in India