HISTORY (Modern) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
LATER MUHGALS -Bahadur Shah-1 ( 1707-1712) Mauzzam and was also called Shah Alam I. He abolished Jizia once again. ra jail. He His actual name was He recognized Raja Ajit Singh as the ruler of Marwar. He released Shahu from thc i * was also called Shah-i-Bekhabar for his liberal policies. Jahandar Shah (1712- 1713) For the first time, Mughal nobles became powerful in Court. Jahandar Shah came to power with the support of Wazir Zulfiqar Ali. UnanTuhandan Shah ,noMA weAK Farukh Siyar (1713- 1719) He came to power with the support of Syyid Brothers called 'the kingmakers'. They headed the Hindustani faction. In 1715, Banda Bahadur, the last Sikh leader was executed. Siyar preserved all the Mughal paintings in Red Fort. He was later killed by Syyid Brothers.
ame was Roshan Akhtar and was unpopular as Rangeela. Syyid Brothers were killed e Turani faction led by Sadat Khan and Asafzha Nizam-ul-Mulk. The Mughal empire ted and Bengal became independent under Murshid Quli Khan. Sadat Khan founded ependent State of Oudh (Ayodhya) and Asafzha founded the independent State of dmmed Shah (1719- 1748) His actual by th disti Hyderabad. Throne to Persia. attacked Delhi in 1739 and took away the Kohinoor Diamond and the Peacock Ahmed Shah (1748- 1754) He was under the influence of court dancer Uddam Bai. Ahmad Shah appointed two years ol infants as Governors of Punjab and Kashmir. Alamgir II (1754- 1759 His actual name was Azizuddin. The Battle of Plassey in 1757 A.D. was fought during his time. Ahmad Shah Abdali, the king of Persia attacked seven times. Shah Alam II(1759-1806) His actual name was Ali Guhar. Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 and Battle of Buxar in 1764 were the major events .during his reign. In 1765, he took part in the Allahabad Treaty and granted Diwani rights (rights to collect revenue) to the English East India Company in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. He became the prisoner of the English after the Second Anglo Maratha war.
Akbar II (1806. - 1837) He conferred the title of Raja' upon Rammohan Roy and deputed him to London to plead the Pension case in the Privy Council Bahadur Shah II Zafar (1837 - 1857) He was the last Mughal emperor and the nominal head of the 1857 revolt. Mirza Ghalib, the father of Modern Urdu potery, was patronized by him. He was deported to Burma, where he died in 1865
AUTONOMOUS STATES BENGAL It was the richest Subah under the Mughals. Murshid Quli Khan was the real founder of the autonomus state of Bengal. In 1700 A.D, he was made Deupty Governor of Bengal by Aurangzaeb. He was the first to introduce revenue farming system in Bengal called Izradari (deciding the right of revenue collection by means of auctioning) The Izradari system as such was first introduced by the Mughal wazir Zulfikar Ali. Murshid Quli founded the city of Murshidabad and shifted the capital city from Dacca to Murshidabad. He granted emergency loans called Taccavi to the cultivators. He nullified the Golden Farmana and forced the English merchants to pay customs duties. Mughal Emperor Md. Shah added Orissa to Bengal when Murshid was the Governor of Bengal.The second Nawab of Bengal Sujauddin, Son-in-law of Murshid Quli got Bihar added to Bengal by the Mughal The third Nawab, Sarfaraz Khan was killed by Alivardi Khan who was then the Deupty Governor of Bihar.
Alvardi Khan He renovated the Calcutta Port harbor to encourage the external trade. The population of the city Calcutta increased phenomenally during his time due to the settlements of Lucknavi and Sindhi merchants ' Siraj-ud-Daula (1756 - 1757) The reason for the clashes between Siraj-ud-Daula and the English were a) The English supported Shaukat Jung against Siraj. b) They refused to hand over the corrupt accountant, Kishan Das c) They also refused to demolish the fortifications constructed in the wake of the Third Carnatic War. On June 18, 1756 Siraj declared war and defeated the English. The defeated English took shelter at Fulta islands. On June 20, 1756 the 'Black Hole Incident' is supposed to have taken place (it was mentioned by Howell, the President of the Calcutta Council). Siraj changed the name of the city from Calcutta to Alinagar and appointed ManikChand as the Governor of Calcutta and returned back to Murshidabad. In Dec 1756, Colonel Robert Clive and Admiral Watson were sent by Madras Government. In February 1757, the Alinagar Treaty was signed between Siraj and the English.
Clive conspired with Mir Zafar, the Chief Commandor of Siraj, Rai Durlabh (the Zamindar of Burdwan), Manik Chand(Governor of Calcutta) and Jagat Seth, the richest banker of Bengal and Oomi Chand, the rich Sindhi merchant (also t Sindhi merchant (also the mediator between Clive and other conspirators). BATTLE OF PLASSEY- (June 23, 1757) Robert Clive commanded 3200 troops. Mir Madan and Kishan Lal led the troops of Siraj. The battle was fought on the banks of river Bhagirathi. Siraj was killed by Miran who was the son of Mir Zafar. The Company got the 24 Parganas district. Clive was given the title 'Sabjung' by the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II. Mir Zafar exempted the English East India Company from payinjg the customs duties in the external trade. In 1759, Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, the French Commander Jean Stuart Law and Pahalwan Singh, a Zamindar of Bihar attacked Bengal but were defeated. In 1759, the Dutch were defeated by the English in the Battle of Bedara. In 1760, Mir Zafar was replaced by Mir Qasim as the Nawab of Bengal.