HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
3. Literature The Prakrit language that was used by Buddha was Pali. Upto first centuary A.D., Prakrit remained the official language of Buddhists. Later, Sanskrit became prominent due to the influcnce of Mahayana Buddhism during the 4h Buddhist Council. TW Most important Pali Texts are Milkndapanha, Suttapitaka, Vinayapitaka, Abhidammapitaka First Sanskrit scholar in Buddhism was Aswaghosa. He wrote Buddha Charitra. It is the first Kavya in Sanskrit literature. Sundaranandana and Seriputraprakarana, found in Khotan in prominent Buddhist texts. drwa cow Most importan/Greatest Scholar of Buddhism was Acharya Nagarjuna (The Einstein of India) He wrote the following treatises: Madhyamika Siddhanta -> Madhyamika Sutralankar . Buddhist Philosophy. Saddharma Pundareeka Padi Pal Central Asia, are the other (anenica . tatad Heubaars Mahayana Buddhism / ', unth kin BuddiA ilen an ex celleunt boet and Ain 17
Sruhullekha was a letter by him to his friend King Yagnasri Satakani (of Satavahanas). Rasaratnakara which deals with chemical properties. Philosophy called Sunyavada (Theory of Voidness) was founded by Acharya Nagarjuna asubandhu was the author of Abhidhammakosa (First dictionary on Buddhist philosophy). unaAmarakosa- writen by Amarasimha is the first dictionary in Sanskrit. d tt Dignaga was the first to introduce theory of logic (Tarkashastra) and herots Pramanasamuchay . Dharmakeerti, called Kant of India Buddhaghosa- wrote Vasuddimaga. He was the Commander of Chapdragupta Vikramaditya II. Jataka stories in Sanskrit language numbering around 550, deal with previous births of Buddha called Bodhisatvas. They were entirely written by Mahayanist in sanskrit.
intsm emerged during Rig Vedic times, started with Tirthankars. There were total of 24 the last one being Mahavira. Their sacred literary tradition is called Anusruti. First Tirthankar was called Rishbha Tirthankara was Parsvanabha (Prince of Kasi) or Parsvanath. He founded the four principles of Jainism 1 Satya-Truth. 2 Ahimsa Non-Violence. Aparigriha-Non-possession. 4. Asteya -Non-Stealing
Vardhaman Mahavira He was born at Kunda village in Vaishali District. His parents were Siddhartha and Trishila (Lichchavi) and he belonged to Gnatrika clan (a.k.a Gnataputra); he got married to Yashoda and his daughter Priyadarshana got married to Jamali. At the age of 30, he renounced the world, when his parents died and he tried to find the ultimate reality i.e. the meaning of life. Yasoda did not permit but Nandivardhana (his elder brother) gave him permission to become Sanyasi. In the 6h year of his ascetic life, he met Makkali Ghosla (a.k.a Ghoshala Muskariputra), the founder of a sect called Ajivikas. At the age of 43, Vardhaman attained Kaivalya (Ulimate/Supreme knowledge) at Jrumbika on the banks of river Rizupalika on the 10h day of Vaishaka masa. He declared himself Jina' (conqueror of ultimate knowledge) and hereafter became the founder of Jainism Jains or Nirgranthas were the 'People liberated from bonds'. He died (or attained Nirvana) in Pavapuri at the age of 72.
Teachings of Mahavira 1. He added the Sth Principle to Jainism called Brahmacharya (control over senses). The 5 2. He gave the three Ratnas (lewels) of Jainism- Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right 3. principles were then called Pancha Anuvratas Conduct. He pronounced the Jain philosophy called Sadvada & Anekantaravada. Sadvada means Theory of "May Be"; it teaches that no knowledge is perfect. Anekantara Vada states that no knowledge can be studied in isolation 4.
Differences between Jainism and Buddhism.: Non violence is not to be compromised within Jainism. Violence is inevitable in Buddhism. Idea of Salvation: Liberation trom desires was taught in Buddhism; Buddh advocated arma Marga'. Securing highest know ledge. Kaivalya is salvation; Jainism advocated Gnana Margai. Buddha remained silent and agnostic. He made no categorical statement regarding God. Existence ofGod: Mahavira declared that God exists but is noi responsible for evolution of Universe. Universe according to him evolved on its own.
End of Jainism: Vardhaman was survived by 13 disciples called Gandharas. Arya Sudharman (a.k Vijaya) became hcad of the Jain church after Mahavira. > The First Jain Council was held at Pataliputra and was presided by Sthulahahu or Sthulabhadra. The original teachings of Mahavira were compiled in the form of 14 Poorvas (old texts). In the first Council, the 14 Poorvas were reduced to 12 Chapters called Angas. After the first Council, Jainism got divided into Swetambars (followers of Sthulabahu, white clads) and Digambars (followers of Bhadrabahu). The Second Jain Council was held at Vallabhi in Gujarat. It was presided by Devavrata Kshamaramana. Here again the 12 Angas were reduced to 11 Upangas (Sub-Chapters)