HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
FORMATION OF STATE Defined by Kautilya in his Saptanga theory of Arthashastra, a State was characterized by seven principles. No state formation satisfied all these seven aspects tll the end of 6h Century B.C. Magadha was the first State to fufill the criteria laid down by Kautilya in Arthshastra and to emerge as a full fledged state. Magadha was the most powerful of the 16 Mahajanapadas. All the other 15 republics coud not emerge as stable States while Magadha emerged as a monarchy and had a stable political systenm. Magadha also had the geographical advantage over oter republics of its times. It was less prone to foreign attacks due to its interior location in the fertile Indo-Gangetic Plain. It also had rich mines which helped it to evolve as the 1st industrial State in India. It witnessed the rise of literacy which was not Brahmanical, and thus was not religiously bound. Shudras came to be empowered as it was ruled by a Shudra dynasties. It had a flourishing economy based on trade and commerce
MAGADHA ->Its first Capital City was Girivraja meaning strong fort. -> The other capital cities were Rajagriha and Pataliputra. - ->It was ruled by four dynasties. Haranyaka - It was founded by Bimbisara a.k.a Srenika. -> Jivaka - the first physician in Indian history and a student of Taxila University flourished in the court of Bimbisara. -> Ajatasatru killed his father Bimbisara & came to power calling himself Khunika.He was greatest of the dynasty. He expanded the state with his imperialistic policies and measures. Assakara was his most powerful Chief Commander and was considered invincible. Sisunaga - The dynasty was named after its founder Sisunag . SATRV2 ng nd bUdd t * .Nanda -It was founded by Mahapadmananda. He conquered Saurashtra and extended his -Kalasoka was the greatest ruler ofthe dynasty. Thu gpon empire till there. Alexander's invasion took place during his time. (22-6 BC Dhanananda was the last of the dynasty. Alenanduu echex Aistdl
MAURYAS Indian Sources: a) Arthashastra, written by Kautilya- The main theme of the treatise was Statecraft. It was later discovered and translated into English by Shyama Sastri. b) Mudrarakshasa, writen by Visakadutta-It deals with the diplomacy of Rakshasa, the Prime Minister of Nandas. c Kautilya also wrote Chandragupta Katha. Foreign Sources a) Indica, written by Megasthenes (Deals with city administration of Pataliputra)- He stated that there were no drinking habits, no slavery etc. He divided the Indian society into seven castes based on profession. He also stated that the city administration of Pataliputra was managed by a municipal board of thirty members.
b) Ptolemy wrote Geography. Lal abo kada &commmerce K c) Pliny, the Elder, wrote Natural History. He lamented on the drain of wealth from Rome to India. The works of both Ptolemy and Pliny, deals with trade, commerce and communication system under the Mauryas Aiaalo wte ndica h Namismatic Evidence: gea historian wo doe enly quote Indica Coin age started with the Mauryas as they were the first to issue punch-marked (minted) coins. Signs on Mauryan coins: Peacock,Hill and Crescent were found on Mauryan coins. Peacock was the royal sign of Mauryas. The word Mauryas is derived from 'Muriyas'i.e. who tamed peacocks. Important coins were Tola (Gold) and Pana (Silver). Each Pana was equal to th ofa Tola. Mauryas used to mint coins in Ashada masa (beginning of the financial year)