HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
Expansion of Jainism- ^- a Lauad JAIN AHO 1. Chandragupta Maurya was converted to Jainism by Bhadrabahu and he performed Sallekhana Vrata (anhiliation of soul or starving oneself to death) at Chandragiri at Sravanabelagola. 2. Kharavela, the greatest ruler of Chedi dynasty that ruled Kalinga, convened a Jain Council at Kumaragiri in 16 B.C. fo uning Swetambars and Digambars but his attempt failed. H* 3. Siddiraja and Kmarapala-rulers of Gujarat patronized Swetambar Jains. db Jaln monks call 4. The Rashtrakutas were the last great patrons of Jainism. Amoghavarsha, the greatest of promati Rastrakutas wrote the famous 'Ratnamalika' and Kairajamarga'. These two texts of Jainism T were written in Canarasi (Kannada in Prakrit form). Jainism soon lost patronage due to its adherence to non-violence and very soon it got assimilated by Brahmanism which dealt a final blow to its identity. Tunnm dachaya Li was the greatest, h
Contributions of Jainism- 1. Development of local languages (Prakrit)- bsc Caao a) Mahavira taught in Ardhamagadhi (Modern Bihari or Magadhi language). b) All Jain scriptures were written in Prakrit. e neatpoeta c) Badrabahu wrote Kalpasutras for Digambars in Prakrit. Gunadlaia d) Canarasi (Kannada) and Sauraseni (Marathi) were developed. Jauinas enoluu he2. First to develop Cave temple architecture- to die Cave temples were built at Kandagiri and Kumatagiri in Kalinga, Indragiri and Chandragiri at Sravanabelagola, and Badami in Karnataka. es p3. Development of Temples (Jain teples are called Basadis):- [ liurs &- tea ai Tintholhaaa 19
Aristanan a) Dilwara Temple in Mt. Abu, Rajasthan were built by Bhima I of the Solanki dynanty anemi a) Dilwara Temple in Mt. Abu, Rajasthan were built by Bhima I of the Solanki dynasty ot tat b) The statue of Bahubali ak.a Gomateswar at Sravanbelagola is the tallest statue in lndia,j 13. iri e MBl.a The reaction to the pogularity of Budhism and Jainim, hamarfiam emerged in the fom of Bhagavatism. Not only did it assimilate the popular features of Buddhism and Jainism, it also was thebts Jains were first to develop Indian sculpture. is monolithic and most perfect. It was installed by Chamudaraya, Minister of. dynasty (in South Karnataka). Atmc noudhc atu, is that er A c), Ghatikas were the Jain Centres of Learning . CG phash ananah. ound at - evolved ideas of its own with which pcople could relate easily.
HAGVATISM Vasudeva Krishna was the founder of Bhagavatis Its philosophy comprised of the three basic principles: b) Praptt e. Total suender to God. e) Nishkama Karma ie Sellless act agvatism propounded that Gnanara of Jainis wll make man arrogant and therefore is not a wise choice. Similarly it argued that the Karmamarga of Buddhism is very relative in terms of good and bad and therefore not a viable option. Hence, Bhaktimarga as propounded by Bhagvatism is the most simplitied route to reach God
Jaiminiya Brahmana and Taiminiya Upanishad Krishna appears as teacher for the first time Bhagwad Giia, composed by Vedavyas, is the highest stage of Krishna's philosophy. Krishna's philosophy emerged around 1000 B.C. but-Bhagvatism became popular only in 6th because of Brahmanism's initi opposon to (as Krishi ritualism However, Shudras were ishna's philosophy opposed Brahmin later they appropriated it as a good defence against Jainism and Buddhism getting converted to the other religions and even other sections of the society were a a getting attracted to Buddhism and Jainism. This process had to be contained. So the priestly class Combssed divertedts atn to Bhavatis (as Krishna belonged to Yadavs). After they were successful, they hailed Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu and assimilated Bhagavatism into anva ahathaat awuansar rahmanism ne
ar Krishna was the disciple of three great sages: Angeerasa, Ghora and Sandeepani. Bhagavatism gradually became popular, even among foreign races like Kushans ,Parthians and Indo-greeks. Lord Krishna was worshiped as Herkles by Greeks. Y Hes However as Buddhism and Jainism were too rigid, they identified most with Bhagavatism Hilodorous, Greek ambassador of king Antialkhedus followed Bhagavatism and installed pillar inscription at Basenagar in Vidisha in M. P. Garuda In course of time, ritualistic part also became assoc iated with Bhagavatism called Pancharatra system which was introduced by sage Sandilya. Pancharatra system meant worshipping Krishna and the four Yadava hiero family i.e. Sankarashana (Balaram), Aniruddha and Samba (sons of Krishna), Pradyumna (Grandson of Krishna). + a During the age of Guptas, Bhagavatism was transformed into Vaishnavism (Krishna got identified as an incarnation of Vishnu). Thus Vaishnavism emerged as the extension of Bhagavatism.
Vaishnavism became a powerful movement in South India especially in Tamllakam under the Alvars (Tamil Vaishnava Saints). They composed devotional literature in Tamil on Vaishnavism called Prabanda. From there Vaishnavism transcended the boundaries of India into South East Asia. It was popularized in Suvarnadweep by Kaundinya who married a Javan princess Susa. He got settled there and promoted Vaishnavism. The Acharyas were the Vaishnava philosophers. The first Vaishnava philosopher was Ramanuja. Aharya. He introduced Visista-advaita Siddhanta. Other renowned Acharyas were Madhava and Vallabha Acharyas 50
SHAIVISIM Shaivism is oldest sect in India and a native faith of India. Aryans accepted Rudra, the non- n Aryan God, who gradually evolved into Shiva. Shiva was worshipped in the form of Lingakara from 1st Century A.D. onwards. The oldest Shivalinga in India is found in Gudimellam near Ranigumpa in A.P, dated 56 A.D. The sacred mantra, Panchakshari (Om Namah Shivai) was first mentioned in Tamil epic Silappadikaram (The Jewelled Anklet) written by Ilango Adigal. The various Shiva sects are as follows- 1. Pashupata Sect It was founded by Nakulisa or Nakulin and became quite popular in North 2. Kashmir Shaivism It is found only in Kashmir and was founded by Vasugupta. It has no mantras but only mudras. This form of worship is called Trika 3. Agamanthas, Mattamayura and Kalamukha are the popular forms in Central India. Shaivism became a devotional movement in South India, first led by Tamil Shaiva saints called oand Nayannars. They were 63 of them. They composed devotional Tamil literature called Thevaram. M Thevaram is popular as Dravida Veda. Periyapuranam written by Sekkilar deals with the lives and teachings of Nayannars. 4. South India: Siva advaita, founded by Srikanta in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. in 2 u an , MP Karnataka - Veera Saiva, founded by Basaveswara Andhra Pradesh - Aradyasaiva founded by Mallikarjuna Panditha. OA DAro had teken Ha form skakti e% being wort Cna n PANCHAYATNA usrte