HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
MUGHAL EMPIRE (1526- 1857 A.D.) buwas not His actual nae was Zahiruddin Mohammed, son of Omar Sheikh Mirza, the king of Farghana in Afghanista s ambition was to conquer Samarkand, the seat of Timur. In 1527 Babur defeated Rana Sanga in the Battle of Kanwa. In the Battle of Chanderi (1528), Babur defeated Mediniroy. In the Battle of Gogra in 1529 Babur defeated Mohd Lodi, brother of Ibrahim Lodi and conquered Bengal.Babur wrote his memoirs in Turkish language. It was called Tuzak-i- Babar or Babarnamah. IA Was hawbatid into persian not baivam khan and nto enlis by Madam tid
Humayun (1530-1555) wea iS Humayun means the most fortunate' In 1537 he conquered Gujarat.His arch enemy was Sher Shah. Humayun defeated Sher Shah Suri in the Battle of Chunar in 1539. Sher Shah defeated Humayun for the first time in the Battle of Chausa in 1540 and for the second time in the Battle of Bilgram (1540).The Mughals lost Delhi in the Battle of Bilgram for the first time. In 1542 Humayun took shelter in the court of Rana Prasad of Amarkot. Humayun defeated Sikandar Shah of the Suri dynasty. in the Batle of Sarhind in 1s4nd got back Deli. He fel fom his personal library at Dinpanah and died. Aiten q,
Akbar - (1556. 1605)- foundio Second Battle of Panipat (October 1556) was fought between Akbar and Hemu. Hemu took the an title Raja Vikramajeet". Akbar was declared the Emperor of Hindustan at Kalanor in Sind Ca without being coronated by his tutor Bairam Khan. The Mughals got back Delhi in the second Battle of Panipat by killing Hemu. Upto 1562, the government was called Purdah Government as Maham Anaga Begum, the first wife of Humayun, Hamida Banu Begum and Bairam khan managed the administration. dnw.- 4 t umdu' uLLA v Hirtw AKBAR's CONQUESTS In 1562 Rani Durgavati of Gondwana was defeated. In 1564 Baz Bahadur of Malwa was defeated. In 1570 Dawood Khan of Bengal was killed. In 1572 Muzaffar Shah of Gujarat was defeated. In 1585 Akbar conquered Kashmir defeating Md. Padshah In 1600 Rani Chand Bibi of Ahmednagar was defeated by Abul Fazl who sent by Akbar. This was the last conquest of Akbar. Akbar's Rajput Policy In 1567 Akba fought in 1576 between Maharana Pratap and Raja Man Singh who was sent by Akbar. The Sisodias unconquered by Akbar was Mewar. 6 la I bO" -Ahrn . r defeated Rana Udaya Singh of Mewar. The famous Battle of Haldighati was of Mewar continued to defy the Mughals upto 1615. The only State that remained x AKBAR's RELIGIOUS POLICY- In 1562 Akbar banned forced conversion. 'In 1563 the pilgrim tax on Hindus was abolished. In 1564 Jizia was abolished
1S Abar otucted Ibadatkhana at. Fatchupur Sikri for religious discourses nd di:. "ssions t', twu onducted every Thursday Alhat invited athe Monuratte and Father Aquinols to speak on Christianity, Pt. Puroshotta Hinduiom, Jainasena Suri on Jainism and Raza on Parsi religion. In 1N70 he ixsed his famous decree of infallibility" called Mahazir or Mahzarnama It was haftd by Shoikh Mubarak, With the decree, Akbar became Mir-i-Adil (Chief Interpretor of on A n Abar founded a new faith called Din-i-illahi. It was also called Tauhid-i-illahi meanin Universal laith Its an theme Sul-i-khul interpreted as peace and harmony', was introduced or the tist time by Abd at he teacher of Akbar. Din-i-ilahi was openly criticized by Raja thaewan Da .vt e
Jahangir (1605. 1628) His pet name was Sheikhu Baba. He hung the bell of justice' in Agra Fort. He executed his son Khusrau and also the fifth Sikh guru Arjun Dev for supporting Khusrau.Mehr-un-nisa begunm was given the title 'Noorjahan'and she became popular as Padshah Begum. She founded her own group calledjunta consisting of herself, her father Mirza Ghiaz Beg (Itamad-ud-Daula) and her brother A saf Khan and Khurram. Khurram (Shahjahan) made Rana Amar Singh of Mewar accept Mughal suzerainty in 1615 In 1616 Khurram conquered Ahmadnagar and was given the title 'Shahjahan'b, In l 610 Persians occupied Kandahar and the Mughals lost Kandaharforever. Jahangir died at Lahore and was buried at Shahdra near Lahore. in 1615 Jata
Shahjahan (1628-1658) Pet kh a ta In 1629 Gujarat and Deccan famine resulted in the loss of men and material. In 1630 Portuguese in Hoogly revolted and were driven away from Hoogly by Kasim Khan, the Governor of Bengal. In 1631 Mumtaz died. Civil War It was fought between Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Shahjahan and Aurangzeb, the third son. Begum Jahanara supported Dara and Roshanara supported Aurangzeb. The secular Dara followed Qadri Sufi Order and translated Upanishads into Persian whereas Aurangzeb followed Naqsh Bandi order. Aurangzaeb and his alliance with the younger brother Murad defeated the imperial armies commanded by Dara and Raja Jaswant Singh in the Battles of Dharmat and Samugarh in 1658. Shahjahan was imprisoned on the charges of misusing public money. He died in 1665 Aurangzeb defeated Dara for the third time in the Battle of Deorai, performed coronation twice and came to power with the title 'Alamgir' meaning 'King of the world'.