HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
6. In the second expedition that started in 1312 Malik Kafur defeated Veeraballala III of the Hoysala dynasty of Dwarasamudra 7.In 1313 he interfered in the civil war between Sundarapandya and Veerapandya, made Sundara the king of Madurai and installed a victory pillar at Rameswaram ed Inaia wax na REFORMS To curb the nobility, Alauddin banned marriages amongst the noble families; consumption of liquor and appointed Mohitsibs to keep an eye on the activities of the nobles. Mohitsibs were actually the Royal Censor Officers to uphold the Koran but Alauddin used them as spics to check thc powcr of nobility. Military Reforms- He was the first Sultan to commission a permanent standing army. He abolished the Inamdari system and paid salaries in cash. Each soldier was paid 234 Tankas per annum. This was called Italaa system. To avoid duplication, he introduced Dagh systenm (branding the horses), Market Reforms- The main purpose of controlling market prices was to maintain the permanent standing army. Alauddin appointed a controller of markets called Shahana-i-Mandi and also spies to oversee the implementation of the price list. They were called Barids. Price regulation was followed in and around Delhi only. PAic* an hal as er
Revenue reforms- 1.He stoppedthe Iqta system. 2. Abolished hereditary revenue officers at the village level called Chaudhuris, Khots Muqaddams and Patwaris. 3. He introduced crop estimation method and a method for assessing the reve system (Grain estimation system) Of all the kings in Indian history he charged the highest land tax (50 % of the gross produce) However, it was the East India Company that charged the highest land tax of 55% in the entire Indian history. 4. He was the first Sultan to sanction loans called Taccavi and founded a separate department called Diwan-i-Mustakharin for the purpose of collecting revenue arrears nue called Kankuth dae kima kaa Religious Reforms He was the first Sultan to separate religion from State and who refused to pay allegiance to the Calipha. . Malik Kafur created reign of terror after killing Khizr Khan and Shahabuddin (first Sultan born to a Hindu mother Kamala Devi). Qutubuddin Mubarak Khilji, the last of the Khiljis took the title Calipha. He was killed by his Wazir, Nassiruddin Khusrau who come to power with the title Khusrau Shah. Khusrau was a Hindu converted to Islam and he ordered installing idols in mosque. He was killed by Ghiazuddin Tughlaq
TUGHLAQ DYNASTY (1320-1414 A.D.) This dynasty was founded by o Tughlaquabad. He was the first introduce postal He was stamped to death by an elephant. It was Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya who gave the prophecy "the Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325- 1351) His actual name was Jauna Khan and he was the most was a prolific scholar in Persian languages,mat iyazuddin Tuglag or Ghazi Malik. He also founded the city of tan to introduce postal system by employing horse couriers ns. He enlightened of all the Delhi sulta n and Arabaic languages,maths, natural sciences, theology and an nd his various measurcs that excellent lexicographer. It was lack of practical sense of judgement a made the Sultan a failure. His controversial reforms were- a) Increased land tax by 40% in the Ganga Yamuna Doab. It was the first act that made the Sultan unpopular. b) S hifted the capital city from Delhi to Daulatabad (Devgiri) so that he could rule over Deccan in a better way.He left Delhi for two years and lived in a camp called Swarga-dwara as Delhi vaged by a form of plague at that time. According to the contemporary historian token currency of copper coins, but the Copper coins actually he effect of the copper currency hat made the Sultan unpopular was his attempt to conquer Khorasan in Central uge losses to the treasury and weakened the economy of the empire to a great was ra Ziauddin Barani, the real intention of the Sultan was to punish the people of Delhi c) Tughlaq introduced a contained bronze which were minted at Tripuri in Kalinga. T on the economy was hyperinflation and it again proved disastrous, d) The last act t Asia. This led h extent.
His other reforms were as follows:or 1. He sanctioned Sandbar loans to the cultivators and founded a separate department for agriculture called Diwan-i-Kohi. 2. He was the first Sultan to openly celebrate Hindu festivals like Holi and to go to the temples He held the Jain scholar Janaprabha Suri in great respect. 3. In 1341 Ibn-Batuta, a traveler from Morraco visited the court of Tughlaq. He was made the Qazi of Delhi. He wrote Kitab-i-Rehala. 4. He was the first Sultan to conduct census in city of Delhi. The Sultanate Empire expanded to its maximum during his reign. Nevertheless, it also started disintegrating.. He died in 1351.while going to Tatta in Sind. on Suwan to ban-thi uutem 2 Sat Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351 - 1389) He was the second Sultan born to a Hindu mother and also second Sultan to come to power when his father was alive. 1. He abolished all the additional taxes called Abwabs and collected only four- a) Khams-A tax on the spoils of the war i. ., 1/5th b) Kharaz -Land Tax. Cpaid by th mualim akat - Charity tax collected for the maintenance of educational institutes called Madarasas c) Z (2-2.5%) on individual income per annum d) Jiziy Brahmins. a - Religious tax on non-muslims (token tax). Feroz collected Jiziya even from an paid b-jh non- uiUshr mae than h tex Mye
2. He constructed four major irrigation systems or canals between river Yamuna and river Sutlej and collected an irrigation tax called Haqi Shirb (/o the produce) He constructed the cities Jaunpur in memory of his cousin Jauna on the banks of river Gomti. Ferozpur, Ferozabad, Fatehpur and Fatehabad were also founded by him. bin Tua fcx0z Skn He beautified the city of Delhi with 1200 gardens startid ih Qel bj He founded a department called Diwan-i-Bandagan for the welfare of the slaves. He was the first Sultan to construct public hospitals called Dar-ul-shafa. Diwan-i-Khairat was the employment bureau created by Feroz for providing employment to the Muslim youth and to perform free-of-cost marriages. He also revived the lqta system and introduced the hereditary succession in army. He wrote his autobiography called Futuhat-i-Ferozshahi Ziauddin Barani and Shams Siraz Atif, the two court historians of Firoz wrote two different text books with the same title called Tarikh Ferozshahi. Mohammed Shah Tughlaq was the last of the Tughlaq dynasty. Timur, the king of Persia attacked Delhi in 1398 and the Sultan Md. Shah Tughlaq took shelter in Gujarat. The independent kingdomsof Jaunpur, Malwa and Gujarat were founded during his period. Timur appointed Khizra Khan as his representative. The power of the Sultan was confined between Delhi to Palam under Md. Shah. kingdom ol shak Alam uou fiom ^eth