HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
Cn e prea edsabhakti and wrote Sursagar. wn le wrote Sundaravilasa tat deals wi six Indian philosophical systems. lon in the community of weavers at Ahmedabad, he preached Nirgunabhakti. His teachings were compiled in the form of Dadu Dayaram Ki Bani IRIAN lom at Karna in Haryana in the community of farmers,he preached Nirgunabhakti an I on Satyam or Truth. His followers were called Satnamis. Pothi is the sacred text o Satnamis. lle was the first to preach Vaishnais n Brahmaputra Valley (Assam) He was the.founder lEka Saranadharma and Vecrapurushamarga (to defend one's faith)
Maratha Bhakti reform movement The main theme o the movement was Maratha-dharma, which essentially m eant the protection haculture Its ultimate aim was to secure an independent state for the Marathas ca Swaraj GNANESHWAR The first and earliest of Maratha reformers wrote a commentary on Bhagwad Gita called Gnaneswari, popular as Maratha Bhadwad Gita and also called Bhavardha Deepika. EKNATH He was the first Maratha reformer to emphasize on Marathi language. NAMDEV He was a tailor by profession (was earlier a dacoit). He emphasized on cultural unity of the saints) Marathas by introducing a tradition called Mahapurusha Sampradaya (worshipping the great
GURU RAMDAS As the Guru of Shivaji, he inspired Shivaji for founding Swaraj. The messages of Guru Ramda were compiled in the form of the text called Dasabodha. GHORA A pot -maker by profession, he preached monotheism BAHINA BAI Follower of Tukaram, she was the most popular woman Bhakti reformer in Maratha movement. She promoted Vitalaswamy cult.
SUFI MOVEMENT -(the word sif meant wool which implied simplicity) Sufism can be defined as Islamic m God). It developed first in Iraq. The first Sufi saint was Begum Rabia of Bashera in Iraq.Sufi orders were called Silsilas. Maximum number of orders were founded in Afghanistan which spread to India. great azad 1. CHISTI It was founded by Sheikh Abdul Chisti. It was introduced in India by Sheikh Moinuddin Chisti. His dargah is at Ajmer. Qutubuddin Bakhtiar Kaki was the chief disciple of Moinuddin. Iltutmish dedicated Qutub Minar to Bakhtiar Kaki. Sheikh Nizamuddin was the most popular Sufi saint in India. Amir Khusro, the greatest musician and literary giant was the disciple of Sheikh Nizamuddin
npradaya was followed which meant burying the body of disciples near A system called Nadasa guru as one family. Sheikh Salim Chisti was the last great saint of Chisti order. He was held in great respect by Akbar. Qamkhanas were hermitages of C histi saints outside the city 2. SUHRAWARDI It was founded by Shihabuddin Shuhrawardi and introduced in India by Bahauddin. It was the richest order and very soon became unpopular. 3. PIRADAUSIA It was the only Sufi order which was founded and developed within India. Founded by Sharafuddin, it was confined to Bihar. He composed Maqtub with the lives and teachings of Sufi Saints) at and Mulfazat literature (it dealt 4. QADRI This most secular order was founded by Sheikh Jilani Qadri. Dara Shikoh, son of Shahjahan followed this order. 5. NAQSHBANDI It was founded by Sheikh Biqabullah but Sheikh Niyamtulla was the greatest scholar in this school of thought which was most conservative. Aurangzeb followed this order.
INDO-ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE * The Islamic style is called Dome and Arch method. The native Hindu style that was prevalent during that time is called Slab and Beam method. The other aspects of Islamic style were huge buildings with lofty gateways and wide entrances. The Muslims also introduced floral designs. They borrowed decorative elements like Kalisa, Swastik and Lotus from the Hindus. Hindus adopted the domes and arches. Architectural development took place in two stages: K 1, Imperial Architecture It is witnessed in Delhi, Agra and Fatehpur Sikri. The architecture reflects the personal taste and interest of the Sultan and Mughal Badshah.Qutubuddin Aibak constructed Quwat-ul-Islam mosque, the first pure Islamic construction and Adhai-din-ka-Jhopra (made by destroying a Ahu*monastery). It was the place where he gave darshan at Ajmer. He laid the foundation for Qutub Minar to commemorate the victory of Islam on Indian soil. He could complete only the first-two storeys. The remaining was completed by Iltutmish and dedicated to Bakhtiar Kaki. In Qutub Minar, black limestone with Sanskrit versus n praise of lord Vishnu is found at the base.Balban constructed Lal Mahal in Delhi. Arcwtecie unde The simple Islamic style became decorative and grand under Alauddin Khilji. He constructed Alai Darwaza, an entrance to Qutub Minar; Hauz-i-Alai; Jamat Khana Masjid and also a city called Stf in Delhi (this was the first time Delhi was expanded). Alai Daxwaza- hs and AunwauneA to