HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
VEDIC LITERATURE (I) Sruti means the revealed ones'- All the four Vedas/ Samhitas were compiled by great sages. They all form part of the Sruti literature. (2) Smrii Commentaries on the four Vedas). They include Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads, 6 Vedanges and 4 Upavcdas. 1. Rig Veda: it is the first text in the World literature and first text in Indo European language *its main theme is the prayers addressed to different Gods. *It is the most important Veda as Gayatri mantra is a part ofit A*1017 hymns / ver ses are divided into 10 mandalas. I IX Mandala belong to Rig er Vedic period and I and X Mandala were compiled during later Vedic Age and a d added to Rig Veda. wau *The priest who recites Rig Veda is called Hotri.
2. Sama Veda - It is full of Ragas or tunes. It is the first text to deal with Indian music Sangeeta Shastra Its main theme is metre or volume called Chchendus which deals with recitation of the verses. The priest who recites Sama Veda is called Udgatar (Master of Voice) 3. Yajur Veda >It deals with rituals and ceremonies.Divided into two parts sukla or white yajurveda, which deals with Aryan ceremonies and Krisna or Black yajurveda dealing with non-Aryans ceremonies ->This text is composed in prose The priest who recites Yajur Veda is known as Adhvaryu 4. Atharvana Veda (lt was not considered as Veda for long time) It was composed entirely by non-Aryans. Its themes include witchcraft, sorcery and invoking evil spirits. -> It is considered as Veda because it- 1. deals with Ayurveda (Indian Medicine), 2. deals with Ganithashastra (Science of Mathematics), 3. deals with Rekhaganita (Geometry) No Brahmin ever recites Atharvana Veda. (ktnnom"
Smritis - 1. Brahmanas- these are related to the conduct of various ceremonies. o8 b 2. Aranyakas are the texts relating to Forest Life (Vanprastha ashram). anishads numbering 108 are also known as Vedantas (last chapter of Vedas). They ce (Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads) are parts of every Veda. They deal with Metaphysics. InduanKatho Upnishad deals with the concept of death in the form of dialogues between Nachiketa, his father and the Lord of Death-Yama Eso Upanishad deals with creation. Jabala Upanishad -Varnaashrama dharmas were mentioned in this Brihadaranyko Upanishsad of Yagnavalkya talks about transmigration of soul Mundaka Upanishad- Our national slogan Satyameva Jayate' is part of this which is also found on Ashokan pillar inscription at Sarnath Chandogya Upanishad - It talks about the childhood of Lord Krishna for the first time. Keno Upanishad - It talks about Uma or Parvati. Swetas swataro Upanishad It defines Shiva for the first time, Maho upani^had- dualo wilHi fHu uenc danayho nnmasiana dharmas weemeanionedin tis. od. faniaivak eAs
the Vedas. 4. Six Vedangas - these were meant to e a) Niryukta - etymology. CShudy o onin ot won b) Siksha Phonetics (relating to pronunciation) c) Chehendus Metre (relating to recitation) d) Vyakarna Grammar e) Kalpa Rituals. It is the most important because was the basis of Indian law. Kalpashastra consists of the following - Grihasutra or Dharmasutras- that deals with household ceremonies Sulvasutras that deals with Rekhaganitha (Geometry) Srutasutras- that deals with social ceremonies f) Jyotish Astronomy (study of the movement of planets). It helps in understanding events in our life. 5. Four Upavedas were written to make one's life happy, safe and secure. They are: BattaVawana wrote A i. Ayurveda: Medicines 11. Ghandhavra Veda: Music (tu iii. Shilpashastra: Sculpture iv. Dhanurveda: Archery wr 4ent on 9ndran alttuu)
5. Four Upavedas were written to make one's life happy, safe and secure. They are: i. Ayurveda: Medicines Bcuttavaana wrote Abanai 4ent an 9ndran (cult twAL) 11. Ghandhavra Veda: Music (the ii. Shilpashastra: Sculpture iv. Dhanurveda: Archery u Religious reform started happening towards the end of the later Vedic age. Religion by this time had become a monopoly of the priestly class and more complicated. It had become very costly and beyond the reach of common man. It denied salvation to the Shudras. 6th Centuary B.C. was marked by a string of intellectual currents all over the world.In India, a group of thinkers called the "Sramanas' emerged in the Rig Vedic Age. They were the earliest critics of the Vedic religion Jainism who cau All Tirthankaras before Mahavira were Sramanas (23). The Sramana school of thoug iricise the role of Brahmins. By 6h Centuay B.C., 6 philosophical systems called 'Darshanas' were founded in India- a) Sankhyashastra by Kapila
b) Yoga by Patanajali c) Nyaya by Gautama d) Vysheshika by Kanada.they were the first to found the atomic theory of Universe.Their main philosophy "Man comes from dust and returns to dust e) Poorvamimansa by Jaimini f) Uttaramimansa by Vyasadeva Badarayan 6th Centuary BC thus posed challenges and brought about new intellectual thought. Jainism was It began with 23 Tirthankars before Mahavira, but their protest was not emphatic and decisive against Brahmanism as much as Buddhism.