HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
ECONOMY (1000 -600 BC) oppeaxd Introduction of Iron called Krishna ayas (Black Metal) Technology was instrumental in brin out the changes in the economy. atized the production process - Tools of production were brought within the reach f every section of society. Especially the lower sections were most benefited from its introduction forests were cleared in order to avail more land for agriculture. As a result,- extensive cultivation began with sickles, threshers etc. More land reclamation led to tremendous increase in agricultural economy and more production. For the first time surplus was generated which served as capital for exehange inwestment Urbanisation began- Towns were created in large numbers. Therefore this age is also called
Second Age of Urbanisation. Trade and commerce developed which led to Vaishyas leaving agriculture. Trade became more lucrative. Shudras took over agriculture and thus they relieved other sections of the society WSof production processes. This also improved the conditions of Shudras. Guilds were formed-Association or guilds of merchants and craftsmen was called Sreni. The head of the merchant guild was called Sresti. The head of the Craftsmen guild was called Jestaka. Proliferation of craft activity took place. Manufacture of a type of pottery called PGW (Painted Grey Ware), in Sanskrit called Neelalbhita , also began during this period, Gach uoas an autou
VEDIC LITERATURE (I) Sruti means the revealed ones'- All the four Vedas/ Samhitas were compiled by great sages. They all form part of the Sruti literature. (2) Smrii Commentaries on the four Vedas). They include Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads, 6 Vedanges and 4 Upavcdas. 1. Rig Veda: it is the first text in the World literature and first text in Indo European language *its main theme is the prayers addressed to different Gods. *It is the most important Veda as Gayatri mantra is a part ofit A*1017 hymns / ver ses are divided into 10 mandalas. I IX Mandala belong to Rig er Vedic period and I and X Mandala were compiled during later Vedic Age and a d added to Rig Veda. wau *The priest who recites Rig Veda is called Hotri.
2. Sama Veda - It is full of Ragas or tunes. It is the first text to deal with Indian music Sangeeta Shastra Its main theme is metre or volume called Chchendus which deals with recitation of the verses. The priest who recites Sama Veda is called Udgatar (Master of Voice) 3. Yajur Veda >It deals with rituals and ceremonies.Divided into two parts sukla or white yajurveda, which deals with Aryan ceremonies and Krisna or Black yajurveda dealing with non-Aryans ceremonies ->This text is composed in prose The priest who recites Yajur Veda is known as Adhvaryu 4. Atharvana Veda (lt was not considered as Veda for long time) It was composed entirely by non-Aryans. Its themes include witchcraft, sorcery and invoking evil spirits. -> It is considered as Veda because it- 1. deals with Ayurveda (Indian Medicine), 2. deals with Ganithashastra (Science of Mathematics), 3. deals with Rekhaganita (Geometry) No Brahmin ever recites Atharvana Veda. (ktnnom"