HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
Contribution of Buddhism 1. Architecture The different forms of Buddhist architecture includ oei e the Buddha er the Lay Sacred Stupa-A place of worship which is constructed on relic Nt is a representation of life being ephemeral, symbolized by half-dome. Chaityas-They are the prayer halls anlau Kaunneu
Vihara Viharas are the rest houses of Buddhist monks Spal Umbrella I symbolizes that whoever understands the Buddhist philosophy is a spiritual head and is divinc
Imptant Stupas in a) Pipriwaha Stupa in Lumbini is the oldest amongst all b) Sanchi, Sarnath, Soneri and Sasaram built during Mauryan times c) Baruhath Stupa in MP built during Sunga dynasty. d) In South India, the most important Stupa is Amaravathi Stupa in Andhra PradeshIt was built by Nagasoka and was the biggest Stupa in ancient times. e Bigest Stupa at presen n the world is Borobudar Stupa in Java, constructed by Poornavarnam II of Sailendra dynasty.
Famous Viharas in India are at Nagarjunakonda in A.P. It is the only place where the name of. sculpturor is engraved on structur . Its Sculpturor was Badantacharya. Vihan wer bult Shansi, liitei 2. rt-Three different schodisofart represent Buddhism. toa t 0 anual Led M a) Mathura School of Buddhist art- It was developed by Sunga dynasty. It comprises of images of Buddha in sitting postures, in deep meditation with Gyan Chakra (Wisdom Wheel) behind his head. b) Gandhara School of Art -It was developed by Kushans. It is representative of the influence of Greek and Roman traditions. Buddha is shown with thick curly hair, drapes, greek-like, masculine physique modeled as Apollo, always in standing posture and preaching like a teacher c) Amaravati School this was developed by Satvahana dynasty. It is the most decorative form. The art is depicted on white limestone slabs where the theme of Buddha's life is engraved in all kinds of postures. >Signs in Buddhist art- Xama a) Lotus and Elephant symbolise the birth of Buddha. b) Horse represents the Great Departure (stands for Kantaka) c) Tree signifies Bodhi or enlightenment. d) Wheel represents Dharmachakra signifying the first sermon delivered.
3. Literature The Prakrit language that was used by Buddha was Pali. Upto first centuary A.D., Prakrit remained the official language of Buddhists. Later, Sanskrit became prominent due to the influence of Mahayana Buddhism during the 4th Buddhist Council. Tw * Most important Pali Texts are Mil ndopanha, Suttapitaka, Vinayapitaka, Abhidammapitaka First Sanskrit scholar in Buddhism was Aswaghoa. He wrote Buddha Charitra. It is the first Kavya in Sanskrit literature. Sundaranandana and Seriputraprakarana, found in Khotan in Central Asia, are the other prominent Buddhist texts. drama conN echry Sexu utant Most important/Greatest Scholar of Buddhism was Acharya Nagarjuna (The Einstein of India) He wrote the following treatises: -> Madhyamika Siddhanta Madhyamika Sutralankar, Buddhist Philosophy -> Saddharma Pundareeka reli eats un Buadir AtotaA Buddium wwith watta an excallant 17 atta Katha another Acholar arsea, co rote a cow n
-> Sruhullekha was a letter by him to his friend King Yagnasri Satakar ni (of Satavahanas) k Rasaratnakara which deals with chemical properties Philosophy called Sunyavada (Aphid ammi ko asFirst dictionary on Buddhist philosophy) (Theory of Voidness) was founded by Acharya Nagarjuna. Vasubandhu was the author of Abhidhammakosa (First dictionary on Buddhist philosophy) Amarakosa written by Amarasimha is the first dictionary in Sanskrit Dignaga was the first to introduce theory of logic (Tarkashastra) and he wrote Pramanasamuch Buddhaghosa wrote Vasuddimaga. He was the Commander of Chandragupta Vikramaditya Il Jataka stories in Sanskrit langua called Bodhisatvas. They were entirely written by Mahayanist in sanskrit. aya. Dharmakeerti, called 'Kant of India', who wrote a' ge numbering around 550, deal with previous births of Buddha