HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
MUSIC The Muslims introduced instruments like Rahab,. Shehnai and Sarangi. They borrowed Mridangam and Nadas Music. Hindustani developed under four forms of music Drupad, Khayal, Thumri a wara from the Hindus. Gunwat-ut-Munya is the earliest text on Hindustani nd Tappa Amir Khusrau, called the 'Parrot of india' was the greatest musician of his ragas - Sanam, Ghora and Aima Qawaali, the devotional from of musicjalso started with Amir Khusra n. Instruments like Sitar and Tabla were also introduced by him ah Tughlaq got the text Ragdarpan, that dealt with native music traditions translated into Feroz Sh Persian. Sultan Hussain Shah of Jaunpur was the first to introduce Khayal. Baz Bahadur, the king of Malwa and his queen Roopmati were experts in Hindustani music. According to Abul Fazal there were 27 great musicians in the court of Akbar, greatest being Mian Tansen. He was an expert in Ragas Deepak, Darbari and Meghamallar. He belonged to the Gwalior Gharana, disciple of Haridas Actual hjae - Ram Tanu Panda Akbar was an expert in playing Nagara (drums). Of all the Mughals, Jahangir composed - maximum number of songs. Shahjahan was the best known singer and was an expert in Drupad. Jagannath Pandit Roy was the greatest singer in the court of Shahjahan. His son Lal Khan was given the title 'Gunasagar' by Shahjahan. Auragzeb banned music but was an accomplished Veena player. Raja Man Singh of Gwalior was responsible for the composition of Mankutuhal, the text that deals with all the nodes of Hindustani music. Garals and
PAINTING It s Abdus tarted under Humayun. The great Persian Painters in his court were Mir Sayed Ali and Samad. They were responsible for the text on Mughal painting Daftar-i-Hamza or Hamzanamah which contained 120 paintings. The Mughal painters used green, blue and gold coloirs, for outlines. The themes of the paintings were either Court proceedings or palace fe. Humayun Q4, encouraged more miniatures Akbar was the real founder of Mughal School of painting. For him, 'painting was the means to realize God'. Khorasan Quli and Farukka Beg were the great Persian painters. Lal, Basavan, Daswant and Mukund were the Hindu painters. A new technique called Fore Shortening" was duced (influenced by Rcnaissancc) during Akbar's time. Akbar encoureaged more frescoes 1intro and mural paintings(wau paint-P) During the reign of Jahangir painting received maximum patronage. His mastery irn such that he could name the painter on see painting was ing the painting. Ustad Mansoor was the greatest painter in the court of Jahangir, popular as the Raphael of the East'. He was good in drawing birds, animals and natural objects. He was invited by the Persian emperor.The two developments under Jahangir were that the life size portraits were drawn for the first time and the technique of drawing the staright face was introduced for the first time,
was bav LITERATURE The Arab historians, were the first to introduce the tradition of writing chronicles, autobiographies and regional history, Ardhakathanika, written by Banarsi, a Jain monk was the first autobiography by an Indian.JHasan Nizami wrote Taj-ul-Mahatir, a text on slave dynasty Isami wrote Futuf-us-Salatin,atexton Bahmani Sultans. Abu Bagr wrote che. nanna ies and regional historA n"deals with LocalHuhovgo e Amir Khusrau was the grcatest litrary giant of his times. Hie introduced a new iter ry stye ah on the conquests of Alauddin Khilji, Futuh-us-Khazain (on Khiljis coming to he beauty of , called Sabaqath-i-Hind by mixing Persian with Hindavi (classical Hindi). He wrote the famous power), Tughlagnama and a collection of five short stories called Khamsa. The story Laila- Majnu is one of the five short stories. In the text called Nusipher, while describing t Kashmir, he observed that "the most beautiful place in the Universe is Kashmir". Gulbadan Begum, sister of Humayun wrote Humayunnama. Akbar got Mahabharata translated into Persian and called it Razamnama. >
MARATHA STATE AND CONFEDERACY Sisodia) Shivaji (1627 - 1680) was born at Shivnir in 1627. His parents were Shahji Bhonsle ( and Jijabai. Dadaji Khondev was the tutor of Shivaji and Samardh Ramdas, his Guru. At the ag of 19, Shivaji became the Jagirdar of Pune. He conquered the forts of Bijapur Torna, Kondana, Mahuli and Mahud; constructed the fort Raigarh near Torna which became his capital city. Chandrakant More, the head of the Muvali tribes was his close friend. The Sultan of Bijapur sent Afzal Khan against Shivaji. Krishnaji Bhaskar became the mediator between the two. Shivaji killed Afzal Khan at Pratapgarh and defeated the Mughal armies sent by Aurangzeb under the leadership of Shasta Khan. In 1664, he attacked Surat, the richest city in 17th Century India. In A1 1665, Shivaji was defeated by Raja Jai Singh sent by Aurangzeb and was forced to sign the Treaty of Purandhar. As per the treaty, Shivaji surrendered 22 Mughal forts (out of 35 that he had captured).
Sambhaji, son of Shivaji became the Mughal Mansabdar. Both Shivaji and Sambhaji were to pay n a personal visit to the Emperor. In 1666, buth Shivaji and Sambhuji visited Agra but they were, imprisoned. They escaped from Agra jail and returned to the Maratha State via Mathura, , Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna, Bhubaneshwar and Telangana. In 1670, Shivaji attacked Surat for the second time. Surat lost its importance and Bombay rose to prominence. In 1674, Shivaji declared the formation of Swaraj, performed his coronation and took the titles 'Chatrapati' and Haindava Dharmoddarak. A priest named Gagabhatt officiated the ceremony. Lohan Nischal Puri, another priest conferred the status of Kshatriya upon Shivaji. In 1675, Shivaji conquered Zinzi, Thiruvannamalai and Vellore forts with the co-operation from the Sultan of Golconda, Abul Hasan Tanisha. In 1680, Shivaji died of cancer.