HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
XThere were two types of land tenures: Seetha or Sita Land of State or the Crown lands which were administered by l Seethaladhyaksha Kubum bakshutas piate Pro -Forced labour called VettiVesti was employed on these lands.The officer-in-charge wasti ioi called Vistivandaka. Jost The State controlled mining, wine manufacturing, salt and other essential commodities. Akaradhyakshya was in charge o aohyaR Loha adhyakshya was in charge of Iron-ore mines. Panya adhyakshya was Quality Controller of essential commodities Potwa adhyakshya was incharge of weights and measures. in fall mines except iron. Lawana Salt
X*MAURYAN ECONOMY THE GUILD SYSTEM Srenis were the guilds of craftsmen and merchants. Guilds of merchants were headed by Sresti. Each of these guilds was guided by a set of regulations and norms called Srenidharma. Except for the guilds of Pataliputra, other guilds issued private Currencies.The guild claimed immunity from the control of the state, involved in money lending business, maintained their own private armies called Srenibala and were the centres of technical education. Important Guilds were: . Sarthabahus-Guild of mobile merchants. . Nigama-Settled merchant guilds of a town. fit Puga-Guilds of money lenders. .iri an E Adyantrikas - Most popular guilds in Deccan. They manufactured hydraulic engines called Ghatiyantras, used in lift irrigation. CURRENCY SYSTEM Roopadarsaka was the officer to maintain the standard in gold currency. COMMUNICATION SYSTEM ->Royal Highways - Most important highway was from Pataliputra to Taxila. Highway from Ujjain to Kanyakumariwas called Dakshinavarta marga.
transport system. Accord ra Ujijain was the nodal point of all communication and Megasthenese, royal officers called Agronomis were in-charge officers for the communic systems. EXTERNAL TRADE -> Broach (also called Bharukacha or Berigaza) was the most important port in the West coast, Tamralipti was the most important port on the East coast. MAURAYAN ART Ashokan pillars are the most beautiful example of Mauryan art. They were made up of black spotted and red spotted sandstones procured from Chunar and Mathura. The most beautiful pilar is found at Laurya Nandangarh (Bihar). Feroz Shah Tughlaq shifted Ashokan pillars from Meerut and Topra to Delhi. These pillars also contain edicts of Ashoka which are an important source of information about the empire.
Cave Temple Architecture Sudhama and Lomasa were the two Cave Temples built during Mauryan times at Barabar Hills fM.P.). Ashoka dedicated these caves to the Ajivikas. T Qo( dwas NBPW Northun Black Polished wave Ashokan Inscriptions They are the first written recorded evidences in Indian history. They were deciphered for the 1t time by James Princep in 1837.The inscriptions were written in Pali language (Prakrit), the exception being Kandahar inscription which is written in Greek and Armaic (Armenian) languages and is hence bilingual.The script used in the inscriptions is Brahmi (left to right). The only inscriptions written in Kharosti script (right to left) were Manshera and Shabazgiri inscriptions. In the Maski and G rjara inscriptions, Asoka reveals his actual name. In the Babru Edict, Ashoka expressed his faith in Buddhism In the Barabar cave inscriptions, Ashoka declared his secular policy. In the Sarnath pillar inscription, he called himself Dharma-asoka the Rumandei pilla r inscription, Ashoka talks about land grants made to the monasterics and In tax concessions given to them In the II and XI separate Rock Edicts, Ashoka elaborates on his Dharma
POST MAURyan ErA (2Century B.c-3rd Century A.D.) called a 'dark age' in Indian history. Due to the infiltration of foreign races and the consequent changes that took place in the socio-political system, there is a dearth of info regarding this period. Art and architecture, trade and commerce, all started decling and therefore not leaving much to interpret the history of that period directly. Hence the period is called 'dark age'. At the same time, caste dharmas were being violated and for this it is called the beginning of Kaliyuga. A Aukanewalka ,Manu, Nouado-, 26 calid WeAu
I. Indo-Greeks - They were also called Bactrian Greeks. k Menander was the greatest of the dynasty. He was converted to Buddhism by Nagasena. The Indo-Greeks were the first to issue gold coins in large numbers. They also started the practice of inscribing the names and the images of the kings on the gold coins giving us the definite evidence. fivsas w Ve 2. Sakas They were also called Kshatrapas.They were settled in Saurastra. Rudradaman wasJ the greatest ruler of the dynasty. The Junagarh inscription & the Girnar inscription talk about his ajj eA0 un grcatness. He renovated the Sudarshana Lakc. In thc Girnar inscription, he claimed victory a)& against the Satvahana dynasty. Rudrasimha, the last of the Sakas was defeated by Chandragupta alvahancVikram aditya ll of the Gupta dynasty. ..uw
4 3. Kushans-They belonged to the Yu-chi tribe d the Silk Trade Route.They took the titles Devaputra, imitating the Chinese (Khad-Phesis). The ~ of China. They were the only dynasty to control G dynasty was founded by Kujala Khad-phesis. Kanishka was the greatest king of the dynasty. He is. started the Saka era in 78 A.D. He also convened the 4h Buddhist Council. The Kushans were q also responsible for Gandhara School of Art which was an admixture of Indian and Roman art, radThey issued large number of silver coins and their coinage tradition was followed by the Guptas il si ParthianThey Were also calied laiavas,Gondophernes was the greatest king of the C Parthians. It was during his time that the 1t Christian pilgrim father St. Thomas visited India in 56 A.D. He was buried at Mailapur in Chennai.
Native Dynasties 1. Sunga-It was founded by Pushyamitra Sunga. Videesa or Vidisha (in M.P) was their capital city. His son, Agnimitra defeated the Indo-Greeks and was the hero in Kalidasa's play Malavikagnimitram. They developed the Mathura school of art anwa - The dynasty was founded by Vasudeva. Pataliputra was their capital city. Susarma, the last of the dynasty was killed by Satakarni II. 3. Satavahanas-The only dynasty in India that ruled for the longest period, uninterrupted for 400 years by 33 Satavahana kings from 2nd Century B.C. to 2nd Century A.D. Their first capital city was Paithan (also known as Pratisthanapura) in Maharashtra and second capital city was Dhanyakatak or Amaravathi. Srimukha or Simuka was the first king of the sathvahanas. However, Satakarni I was the real fo sacrifice. He was defeated by Kharavela of Kalinga. The Nanaghat inscription issued by his wife Naganika talks about his greatness. r of the dynasty. He was also the first king in South India to perform A swamedha