HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
Vedic Civilization The word Aryan' is not a racial term, but a linguistic term. They spoke Indo-European language and were an agglomeration of many races. Originally the home of Aryans was Central Asia or Eurasia, particularly the steppes. The migration of Aryans started around 1700 B.C possibly due to ecological reasons. They depended largely on pasture lands Max Muller was one of the major proponents of the theory of Aryan migration from Central Asia. He had studied Vedas and translated them into German language. He was a philologist (l'hilology is the Study of Comparative Language), Indologist (one who studies Indo-Furopean Language) and said that Aryans in India developed Sanskrit & Aryans in Europe developed all other European languages. He laid his arguments on the many similarities between Sanskrit and European languages especially English. He proposed that when economy and ecology underwent changes, one branch moved towards west and settled in Europe, while the other moved towards east and settled in India
Evidences of Aryan migration: * Aryans migrating towards India were first witn csscd in Iran. It is evident from 'Zend Avesta - the Classical text of Iran which records the names of Aryan Gods namely Indra, Varuna and Agni. * Kessite Inscription also records presence of Aryans in Iran. * 2 Inscriptions: Bhagascoi and Mittani also refer to Aryans, * Rigveda talks about river systems of Afghanistan Krumu (R. Khuram) and Kuba( Kabul). AO knouwledi o The Aryans travelled from Afghanistan to India through khyber and Bolan passes. By 1500 B.O Aryans were settled in 'Sapta Punjab to Haryana, which became their main region of settlement. Migration was a constant sindhu' region and their gradual course of migration was from W n thirculure Riaveda was alsn composed by Aryan saint (Rishi) families in India
feature in their culture. Rigveda was also composed by Aryan saint (Rishi) families in India giving a description of the various river systems, Himalayas, Vindhyas, Ganga, and Jamuna. tWa Names given by the Aryans to the different rivers: Vitsata Suvastu Askini Purishini Suturdi Vypas Drishadvadi Mujawanth is the mountain peak in Himalayas that is mentioned in Rig Veda and was conside the source of 'Soma'(their favourite drink) Rig Veda regarded.India atBharatvarsha to belocated-o-Jambudwip. SOCIO - ECONOMIC LIFE: There were six prominent tribes during that period: 1. Bharathas (they were the most powerful tribe)* il River Jhelum River Swath River Chenab e River Ravi River Sutlej River Beas River Rakshi wati. Ths- ad no k
Wars took place amongst Aryans themselves and also between Aryans and Non-Aryans. As thte nature of economy was pastoral, wars were largely fought for control over and sharing of cattle. oblen ** Most important War was the Dasaraja battle (Battle of 10 Kings)- it was the outcome of ego clash between two great saints of the Rig Vedic time- Vashistha (Aryan) and Vishwamit a (Non-Aryan). Vishwamitra, due to his immense knowledge was the Brahmarshi of Bharathas but later Vashistha replaced him. So Vishwamitra waged war against them taking 10 kings (Aryans and 5 Non Aryans) in collaboration. The battle (Bharathas vs. 10 Kings) was led by Puruksa and fought on banks of river Purushini (Ravi). Bharathas were led by Sudas and confeder cy was led by the king Puruksa of Thugvasas tribe.
6Sudas took t AL htle Thusad a444 TRIBAL POLITICAL FORMATION: Each tribe was organized under different administrative units: . Grama (Village) was headed by Gramani. . Group of Gramas i.e. Vis was headed by Vishyapti Group of Vis's i.e. Gana Jana (tribe) was headed by Ganapati (head of Gana). * Rajan was the most qualified among all and also was the Gopa (protector) The foremost duty of the King entailed the protection of people. He was assisted by Purohit (Priest), Senani (Chief Commander) and Yuvraj (Crown prince) in the adminstartion of his kingdom. However, there was no permanent standing army, and bisktracy
Two taxes were collected: Bhaga - Compulsory Tax. avtveA . Bali - Voluntary offering. The King was also not autocratic. He had to abide by the decision of assemblies called Sabha, Samiti and Vidhata. Sabha and Samiti were legislative assemblies at tribal territorial level; and Vidhata was at Vis level. Any decisions by Sabha and Samiti were binding on the king. Sabha was the assembly of elders and heads of families. Samiti was a General Assembly which was open for all including women. The Samiti was the ultimate authority and its decisions were final.
SOCIETY The nature of society was Patriarchal i.e. the Father was the head of the family cailed Grihapati. The family's lineage was also carried out in father's name. he was also the Dampati i.e. the first among the Couples. It was a rural society I had no towns or urban centres and it mostly depended upon astures for livelihood. It was largely a village society ama system-It evolved for the first time amongst the Aryans. The society was divided into three Varnas at a later stage: e Brahmins . Kshatriyas Vaishyas
wer section were without Varna status. Even lower were the Dasas' or Slaves who were mostly Non-Aryans. The independent Non-Aryans were known as Dasyus Varna classification was done on two parameters n the basis of complesion. This was to pertuate the domination of the fair-skinned Apans. 1. Aryans -Shwetavarna 2. Non-Aryans Krishnavarna There were no restrictions on inter-Varna marriages and dining was permitted. There was no social taboo attached to inter- cb On the hasis of ocypionat and temperament, 3 vaana, u anyone as one could change Varna by changing occupations. The varna socializing. act ini portant so,rce