HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
He introduced a social philosophy called Dhamma (Dharma) with principles like Satva Samyama, Sankshema and Ahimsa.Nigrodha (a 5 year old child) was the Buddhist monk who was responsible for the change in Ashoka. Later Mauryans: -Samprapti also followed Jainism and was popular as JainaAsok. ya, Dhasaratha also followed Ajivika Sect. -Brihadrata - the last of the Mauryas, was killed by his Chief Commander, Pushyamira Sunga? Decline of the Mauryan Empire: Although there are many theories that attempt to describe the fall of the the Mauryan empire, the most reasonable one is that describes the collapse due to financial crisis. Due to lack of control on mines and the land grant system, the Maryan treasury diminished. The empire had suffered huge losses in trade and commerce. Its means of communication were hindered. And finally, the absence of any strong ruler after Ashoka, led to its ultimate collapse.
MAURYAN ADMINISTRATION 1. Mauryan State was the first welfare State in India. 2. It was the most centralized State in Indian history 3. It was also the state with well expanded and structured bureaucracy Central Administration- At the Central level, the king was assisted by Council of Ministers called Mantri Parishad. t>Mantris were the advisors, who received 12,000 panas per annum as salary. There were 27 departments with 26 Adhyakshyas. The only department without Adhyaksha as fisheries. ->Impportant functionaries were called Teerthas- m. a) Samaharta was the Chief Tax Collector 24V b)Sannidata was the ChiefTreasury Officer. *T T-M- )
Provincial Administration >Empire was divided into 4 provinces- South, East, West and Central Uijain was the capital of Central Province Taxila was the capital of Western Province, whose Governor was stated to be osali successor of the Mauryan State. Suvarnagiri was the capital of Southern Province.Tosali was the capital of Eastern Province Governors were called Kumara-amatyas.They were assisted by: . Pradesika-Chief Revenue Officer. "A Rajuka - Revenue Settlement Officer Sthanika was the Head of the Local Administration. 21 . Yukta Tax Collector. The capital city, Pataliputra, was ruled by a Municipal Board of 30 members, divided into 6 committee:s Military Administration- This also was managed by a Board of 30 members divided into 6 committees, each. with 5 members
Judicial administration The source of law for Mauryans was Sukraneeti composed in post- Vedic age. Dharmasteyas were the Civil Courts of Law and Kantakasodhakas were Criminal Courts. Spy system or espionage formed a crucial part of Maurayan aministration.The Chief royal spy was called Pathivedaka ,one who reports directly to the king and the other spies were called Gudapurushas Revenue Administration- Chief sourc of revenue was Land Tax or Bhaga. Con Chief source of revenue was Land Tax or Bhaga. LdMe ihi However many additional taxes were also levied *Hulivakara Tax on ploughshare Dasamolibaga - Tax collected by the State for protecting the crops from 10 types of destructions
XThere were two types of land tenures: Seetha or Sita Land of State or the Crown lands which were administered by l Seethaladhyaksha Kubum bakshutas piate Pro -Forced labour called VettiVesti was employed on these lands.The officer-in-charge wasti ioi called Vistivandaka. Jost The State controlled mining, wine manufacturing, salt and other essential commodities. Akaradhyakshya was in charge o aohyaR Loha adhyakshya was in charge of Iron-ore mines. Panya adhyakshya was Quality Controller of essential commodities Potwa adhyakshya was incharge of weights and measures. in fall mines except iron. Lawana Salt
X*MAURYAN ECONOMY THE GUILD SYSTEM Srenis were the guilds of craftsmen and merchants. Guilds of merchants were headed by Sresti. Each of these guilds was guided by a set of regulations and norms called Srenidharma. Except for the guilds of Pataliputra, other guilds issued private Currencies.The guild claimed immunity from the control of the state, involved in money lending business, maintained their own private armies called Srenibala and were the centres of technical education. Important Guilds were: . Sarthabahus-Guild of mobile merchants. . Nigama-Settled merchant guilds of a town. fit Puga-Guilds of money lenders. .iri an E Adyantrikas - Most popular guilds in Deccan. They manufactured hydraulic engines called Ghatiyantras, used in lift irrigation. CURRENCY SYSTEM Roopadarsaka was the officer to maintain the standard in gold currency. COMMUNICATION SYSTEM ->Royal Highways - Most important highway was from Pataliputra to Taxila. Highway from Ujjain to Kanyakumariwas called Dakshinavarta marga.