HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas College, DU * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre. *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
Smritis - I. Brahmanas-these are related to the conduct of various ceremonies. 2. Aranyakas are the texts relating to Forest Life (Vanprastha ash B anishads numbering 108 are also known as Vedantas (last chapter of Vedas). They (Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads) are parts of every Veda. They deal with Metaphysics. ce InduanKatho Upnishad deals with the concept of death in the form of dialogues between Nachiketa, his father and the Lord of Death-Yama ESO Upanishad deals with creation Jabala Upanishad -Varnaashrama dharmas were mentioned in this. . Brihadaranyko Upanishsad of Yagnavalkya talks about transmigration of soul Mundaka Upanishad- Our national slogan Satyameva Jayate' is part of this which is also found on Ashokan pillar inscription at Sarnath Chandogya Upanishad - It talks about the childhood of Lord Krishna for the first time. Keno Upanishad - It talks about Uma or Parvati. Swetas swataro Upanishad It defines Shiva for the first time, ubanwi dorayho nnmasiama dharmas weemeanionedin tis od. faniaivak
the Vedas. 4. Six Vedangas - these were meant to e a) Niryukta -etymology. Cshud ot on b) Siksha Phonetics (relating to pronunciation) c) Chehendus Metre (relating to recitation) d) Vyakarna Grammar e) Kalpa Rituals. It is the most important because was the basis of Indian law. Kalpashastra consists of the following - Grihasutra or Dharmasutras- that deals with household ceremonies Sulvasutras that deals with Rekhaganitha (Geometry) Srutasutras- that deals with social ceremonies f) Jyotish Astronomy (study of the movement of planets). It helps in understanding events in our life. A A 5. Four Upavedas were written to make one's life happy, safe and secure. They are: Battavoana wrote Aana i. Ayurveda: Medicines ii. Ghandhavra Veda. Music (tho iii. Shilpashastra: Sculpture iv. Dhanurveda: Archery 4ent on 9nduan alttuu)
5. Four Upavedas were written to make one's life happy, safe and secure. They are: i. Ayurveda: Medicines Bcuttavaana wrote Abana 9nduan (aut tun) ii. Ghandhavia Veda: Music (tho ii. Shilpashastra: Sculpture iv. Dhanurveda: Archery 4ent en Religious reform started happening towards the end of the later Vedic age. Religion by this time had become a monopoly of the priestly class and more complicated. It had become very costly and beyond the reach of common man. It denied salvation to the Shudras. 6h Centuary B.C. was marked by a string of intellectual currents all over the world.In India, a group of thinkers called the "Sramanas' emerged in the Rig Vedic Age. They were the earliest critics of the Vedic religion Jainism who cau All Tirthankaras before Mahavira were Sramanas (23). The Sramana school of thoug icise the role of Brahmins. By 6 Centuay B.C, 6 philosophical systems called 'Darshanas' were founded in India- a) Sankhyashastra by Kapila
b) Yoga by Patanajali c) Nyaya by Gautama d) Vysheshika by Kanada.they were the first to found the atomic theory of Universe.Their main philosophy "Man comes from dust and returns to dust e) Poorvamimansa by Jaimini f) Uttaramimansa by Vyasadeva Badarayan 6th Centuary BC thus posed challenges and brought about new intellectual thought. Jainism was first to protest against Brahmanism. It began with 23 Tirthankars before Mahavira, but their protest was not emphatic and decisive against Brahmanism as much as Buddhism.