Rajni Jha is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas College, DU * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre. *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
Hala was the scholarly king who wrote the famous Gadhasapta Sathi (700 stories) in Prakrit language. Gunadhya was the court poet of Hala who wrote the famous Brihatkatha in Paisachi language. It narrates the story of Naravahanadatta (Kuber -the God with 'Nara' as vehicle). Gautamiputra Satakarni, the greatest ruler of the dynasty, founded the Salivahana era in78 A.D. He took the titles-Ek Brahmin (The only Brahmin) and Trisamudradiswar (The Lord of Three Seas). His greatness is mentioned in Nasik inscription, issued by his mother Gautami Balasri 4. Chedi Dynasty- It ruled Kalinga. Kharavela, the greatest of the dynasty defeated Satakarni I and took the title Mahameghavahana. The Elephanta Cave inscription also called Hatigumpa inscription hails his greatness. In 161 B.C, he convened a Jain Council at Kumaragiri.
SANGAM AGE-(2"d Century B.C.- 3rd Century A.D.) Upto 2nd Centuary B.C, the deep South remained under the Neolithic Age. The peculiar cultural formation in the South is called Megalithic Cultural formation (Big Stone Age Culture). The megalithic burials found were technically called Cyrenes. > The word 'Sangam' means confluence of two rivers. In history, it stands for the assembly of poets or scholars'. It was first convened by St.Agasthya, the 1t Aryan who crossed Vindhyas and entered the South. Three literary assemblies called Sangams were held at Madurai, the capital city of Pandyas. The It Sangam was presided over by Agasthya himself. However, the present Sangam literature belongs to 2nd and 3 Sangams. The dynastics which used to participate were Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas. Thame o i Sarmam
Sangam Literature is divided into 5 sections called: 1. Early Works 2. Eight Anthologies (called Ettutogai) 3. Ten Short poems (called Pattu Pathu) 4. Eighteen minor works (Padunekkil Kanakkalu) 5. Three Enics
The literary sources of that period are an important source of information to construct the history of that time. Important literary works are as follows- Xa) Tolkappiyam written by Tolkappiyar. It is the carliest text and deals with grammar. b) Maduraikanji written by Malgudi Marudan. It describes the city of Kaveripatnam and is the most important source on the trade and commerce in the deep South. c) Murugarupadai is a song addressed to Murugan (Son of Shiva), the most powerful God of South, written by Nakkirar d) Palamoli - It deals with day to day rituals of Tamilians written by Mururai Ariyar. e)Thirukkural was written by the great saint Thiruvalluvar and is full of proverbs. Its theme is ethics and moral values of the said period. It is also called Bible of Sangam literature. ati adtti
botha of Three Epics- a) Silappadigaram (The Jewelled Anklet) -It was written by Ilango Adigal, the grandsen-ef Se Karika a Ghola. The hero of the epic, Kovelan was a merchant of Kaveripatnam. The heroine of the epic, Kannagi, was the wife of Kovelan. She became Goddess of Chastity and inspired a cult called Pattini cult (Worship of Kannagi). Neduuzeiwsahe b) Manimekhalai -It was written by Sittanai Sattanar. It is the story of Manimekhala, the daughter of Kovelan and Madhavi, a beauty who excelled in fine arts. Udaikumar was the villain of the epic. Manimekhala becomes a Buddhist nun. It was the first text to talk about the development of fine arts and Buddhism in deep South. c) Saivaga Chintamani-It was written by Tiruttakadevatar and is a story of a magnificent character called Saivaga who finally became a Jain monk. The epic also talks about popularity of Jainism in deep South