HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas College, DU * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre. *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
Shivaji's Administration: Shivaji was influenced by the famous Wazir of Ahmeadnagar Malik Ambar in his administration. There were 27 departments at the Central level. Chatrapati was assisted by a Council of 8 ministers called Astapradhans- 1. Peshwa PM 2. Amatya - Finance Minister, also known as Majumdar. 3. Mantri Chronicler; also known as Waqa-i-Navis. 4. Senapati - Chief Commander; also known as Sar-i-Naubath. 5. Sachiva - For internal affairs. He was also known as Shrunavis. 6. Suman -In-charge of external affairs and also known as Dabir. 7. Pandit Rao In-charge of ceremonies, education and religious affairs, also known as Danadakshya. 8. Nyayadeesh In-charge of law. The last two were exempted from participating in wars. Swaraj was divided into - Pranth (provinces), Tarafs, Paraganahs and Gramas (Gaam). both Maratha,&-non-ma
REVENUE ADMINISTRATION- Kathi was the yardstick for measuring the land, first introduced by introduced Ryotwari System and later replaced it with Jagirdari system. The land tax in Sw mbar. Shivaji first Kathi was the yardstick for measuring the land,first introduced by Malik Ambur araj was initially 30% but later made 40%. The two controversial taxes collected by Shivaji were Chauth and Sardeshmukhi. Both were colletcted from the Mara es under the control of outside Swaraj. However Chauth was exclusivey from the Maratha stat Mughals or the Sultan of Bijapur. Sardeshmukhi was from the territories where the influe Marathas was felt and their authority acknowledged. Chauth was 1/4h of the land tax whereas itori Sardeshmukhi was 1/10h of the individual income per annum.
MILITARY ADMINISTRATION man There were two types of armies: 1. Berzis - Standing or permanent army. 2. Shiledars - Mercernaries. The military officers were Nayak (10), Hawaldar (50, Jamadar (250), Hazari (1000) and Panchhazari (5000). Khafi Khan, a Mughal historian says that Shivaji commanded 200 warships tationed at Kolaba. Shivaji suppressed the pirates called Zinziras and Angrias in the Konkan Coast with his navy * Shivaji's Welfare Measures- Secularism was the declared State policy. Forced conversions were banned throughout the empire. Child-marriages andmoney lending by Marwari money lenders were also banned Sambhaji (1680 1689) He was the first son of Shivaji. He gave shelter to Prince Akbar, who had revolted against Aurangzeb. He was captured at Sangameswar bank of river Navdi in 1689 and killed bv ukarab Khan at Tolapur onh March 1689, one day before Gudipadwa, New Year festival, Sahu, son of Sambhaji and Yesubai wife were deported to Agra
XRajaram (1689 - 1700) 94 Aon a For eight years, he took shelter in Zinzi. For the first time, he introduced a new office called Pratinidhi (representative). He was killed by Aurangzeb in 1700 at Pratapgarh. A Tarabai (1700 1714) She was the wife of Rajaram and the most popular woman leader of the Marathas. In 1707 A.D. Sahu was released by the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah I. Sahu defeated Tarabai in the Battle of Khed with the support of Danaji Jadav and Balaji Vishwanath. The Maratha State was divided into two parts. Sahu became Chatrapati at Satara and Tarabai remained powerful at Kolhapur. AAGE OF THE PESHWAS (1713 -1818) I. Balaji Vishwanath (1713- 1720) An accountant in the Court of Danaji Jadav, he was given the title 'Senakarta' by Sahu and was made Peshwa in 1713. The office of Peshwa was made hereditary on the request of Balaji Vishwanath. In 1719, Balaji struck a treaty with Syyid Brothers called Delhi Treaty. Under the
treaty, the Marathas on behalf of the Mughals were to maintain law and order in Deccan and for" that they would collect Chauth in 6 Mughal subahs in Deccan. Yesubai, mother of Sahu was released from Agra jail under the treaty. The First Peshwa founded the Maratha Cofederacy of 5 states with himself as the Head of the Confederacy. The 5 States were *1. Peshwa of Pune 2. Bhonsle of Nagpur 3. Scindias of Gwalior 4. Holkars of Indore 5. Gaikwads of Baroda. The Peshwa also revived the Saranjama System. Under the system, Jagirs were granted to the powerful Maratha families called Mokkasas (Mokkasadars) nd ^owrdan
II. Bajirao I (1720 1740) He became the Peshwa at the age of 19. He was the founder of the idea Hindupad Padshahi' (Hindus to rule India) and further declared that it was his ambition to see the Maratha Empire spread upto Attok in Sind. The Peshwa defeated the Nizam of Hyderabd twice in 1728 and in 1738. He forced him to sign Mungishgaom and Durulsarai treates respectively. In 1739, the Peshwa defeated the Portuguese and occupied their settlements, Salesette and Bassain. In 1739, when Nadir Shah, the king of Persia attacked Delhi, the Mughal Emperor Md. Shah requested for the services of Bajirao I. The Peshwa, on his own, occupied Malwa and Bundelkhand. He was called second Shivaji for his expertise in Guerilla warfare. An excellent painter, he & connected with Mastani episode. He defeated Sambhaji Il of Kolhapur and united the Maratha State.* la>1
III. Balaji Bajirao (1740- 1761)* He became Peshwa at the age of 18. His actual name was Nana Sahib. Raghunath Rao Bhonsle of Nagpur conquered Carnatic, Mysore, crossed river Mahanadi, defeated Alvardi Khan (the ruler of Bengal) and collected Chauth from all defeated Statesbatl o panipet h uum who shsul rla Inua wha battle , Mauavas * has THIRD BATTLE OF PANI PAT: JAN 14, 1761: Yaub not cut . a ad kok It was fought between Marathas and Ahmad xii Shah Abdali of Persia. Abdali attacked India for the first time in 1757 A.D. The Mughal S\ Emperor, Alamgir II, requested for the help of the Marathas. Dattaji Shinde sent by the Peshwas, i defeated Timur Shah- son of Abdali and Govemor of Punjab.The Maratha leaders who e participated in the Battle were Danaji Gaikwad, Malhar Rao Holkar, Jankoji Scindia, Vishwas wle Rao (Son of Peshwa) and Sadashiv Rao Bahu (cousin of Peshwa). Bahu was the supreme aed commandr. Malhar Rao Holkar withdrew from the participation. Ibrahim Gardi was the tCommander of Maratha artillery forces.The main cause for the defeat of Marathas was the lack in of support from the Sikhs and Jats,The English were the ones who benefitted most from the third le battle of Panipat. The Peshwa died of shock.He was called the founder of the greater Marath empire. 0
IV. Madhav Rao (1761-1771) He was the last great Peshwa,popular for his administrative reforms. The death Madahv Rao was felt more disastrous than the Third Battle of Panipat as per Joseph Mastyne. V. Narayan Rao Narayan Rao was murdered by Raghunath Rao Bhonsle (Raghuba). VI. Madhav Narayan The posthumous son of Narayan Rao was declared Sixth Peshwa by Nana Pha dnavis. FIRST ANGLO MarATHA W R (1779-1782 A.D.) In 1775 Raghuba signed Surat Treaty with General Gioddard of Rombay. In 1776 Nana signed Purandhar Treaty with Governor General Warren Hastings, promising to give Salsette " the English maintained neutrality.In 1779 the Bombay Government under Goddard declared war on Pune Government of Peshwa. Nana was supported by Mahdaji Scindia. They defeated General Goddard and forced him to sign Wedgaon Convention in 1779, by which the English lost all their settlements. The war ended with Salbai Treaty in 1782. Warren Hastings agreed to recognize Madhav Narayan as Peshwa. Raghuba was deposed. As promised, Marathas surrendered Salsette and agreed to support the English in the second Anglo-Mysore war.