HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
The first men to be influenced by the teachings of Buddha were King Ajatasatru of Magadha and King Prasenjit of Kosala. Buddha converted a bandit, Angulamali, and Amrapali a.k.a. Ambapali (the seductress), the Court dancer of Ajatasatru to Buddhism. He converted Rahul to Sanyasa. At the age of 80, Buddha reached Kusinara and became the guest of an untouchable, Chunda who offered pork. Buddha consumed it, had diarrhoea and died (Mahaparinirvana) at Kusinara. Teachings of Buddhas - 4 Noble Truths - 'Arya Satyas' a. The world is full of misery. b. The cause of misery is zeal (Trishna agni) or excess of desire. c. Zeal can be surmounted. d. To conquer zeal, one should follow Arya Astangamarga (Eightfold Path) Eightfold Path comprises of the 8 Principles for a good life. He also prescribed Madhyama Marga (Middle Path) i.e. the Life between two extremes, a life of balance
Other ideas of Buddha: 1. He believed in transmigration of soul (Life after death). 2. He believed in Karma Siddhanta (For every action, there is an opposite reaction) called Pratyutpada 3.On the existence of God, Buddha remained agn stic. Fer mstencs Sangha was the religious order founded by the Buddha. Buddhist Sangha is considered to be the oldest Church in world history. Slaves, insolvents and diseased persons were not allowed to enter Sangha. However at the insistence of Ananda, Buddha allowed women into Sangha. The Sangha meent o u
Sangha. However at the insistence of Ananda, Buddha allowed women into Sangha. The Sangha had a prescribed code of conduct Every monk (Bhikshu) must have one pair of yellow robes, a needle, a piece of string, a begging bowl. Meals were to be had only once a day Mouka aha t bako Monks were to rest only in the rainy seasons . ist Monks were not to commit 64 types of cresi.e. Prathimokshas. Bhikshus were the lifetime members of the Buddhist Sangha. Upasakas were the followers of Buddhism After the death of Buddha, four Councils had met to resolve several issues regarding Buddhism, its teachings and regarding the code of conduct within the Sanghas
First Budhist Council took place in 483 B.C at Rajagila. It was presided by Mahakashvap4 and patronised by Ajatsatru, the King of Magadh. Ananda recited Suttapitaka (a code of conduct, morals, and principles for Buddhist monks) and Upali recited Vinaypitaka (code of conduct for Sanghas). Tr wos in d 2nd Buddhist Council was held in 383 B.C at Vaishali. It was presided by Sabbakami and patronized by Kalasoka, the greatest king of Sisunaga dynasty. Here Buddhism got divided into Un c ou nel, dec ALArm aga taken to make Buddhiow ka two sects: Mahasanghikas who favoured changes (Liberal) and Sthviravadins/Theravadins who by ok dhaum advocated no changes and were believers/followers of elders (Conservative) Third Buddhist Council was held in 250 B.C. at Pataliputra and was presided over by Moggaliputra Tissa, prince of Ceylon. It was patronised by Ashoka, the greatest of the Mauryan kings. Tissa composed Abhidhamma Pitaka that dealt with Buddhist philosophy. real 15 cause He-birth
Fourth Budhis Council was held in first Century A.D. at Kundalavana in Srinagar. It was presided by Vasumitra and Aswaghosa and patronized by Kanishka, greatest ruler of the Kushans. During this Council Buddhism got divided into: Mahayana meaning Great Journey of Buddha's soul. Hinayana meaning Less/ Short Journey of Buddha's soul. Mahayanis founded by Acharya Nagarju a) believed that Buddha would be born again; while Hinayanis belived Buddha would not be born agai i. The gap of 250 years (between the 3"d and the 4 Council) was utilized maximum by Brahmans. They brought many changes in the relgion. Brahmans introduced the incarnation system, made Buddha the 9h Avatar. Hinduism / Brahmanism brought about the concept of future lives of Buddha.