HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
Chola Administration- The unique aspect of the administration was the absolute autonomy granted to the village assemblies. Cholas were called founder fathers of local self governments. Perundrum was the Secretariat under the Cholas, headed by Olainayakam (Chief Secreatory). Village Adminstration was constituted by: 1. Ur - a common village settlement for all castes. 2. Agrahara - village settlement of Brahmins 3. Brahmadeya - villages around the temples. 4. Nagara - settlements of merchants. stati bia vlapu unde^ aireut Sabha was the Legislative Assembly. Elections were held for the village executive committees electing atleast 30 members by means of lottery system. The Executive Committee was answerable to Sabha and would be in office for three years. The most important function of the executive committe was water distribution. EUecidive committraA Vauyam The Uttaramerur inscription talks about election code- Candidates aged between 35yrs 70yrs, educated, men of integrity and morals, first time contestants and regular tax payers were eligible to contest elections. Disqualifications included criminal background, men with immoral character and sons of Devadasis. Women were not allowed to contest elections.
Chola Society Sanskritisation process began with Cholas. Attempt was made by the lower castes to imitate upper castes customs, language and traditions to enhance their social status thus leading to upward mobility. This theory was first putforth by M.N. Srinivas, the reknowned sociologist in his text social change in Modern India Devadasi system (temple dancing girls) also started during this period Ihe custom of Veeragal continued which refered to the class of warriors sacrificing their lives for the sake of king. Soiutuasdivi wneas They had prosperous trade with Persia on the West Coast and China on the East Coast. The prominent guilds under the Cholas were Manigramam (the guild of weavers), Nanadasi (the mobile merchants) and Telekai (the guild of oil merchants), Yeedhi was the settlement of weavers. The gold coin Varaha was in large irculation The ce tatus hola Culture- Ihe Dravida style of temple architecture reached its perfection under the Cholas. The best example is the Brihadeswara temple or Rajarajeswaram at Tanjore.The Chola craftsmen excelled Lxav in the art of making bronze images of Nataraja, The image of Nataraja actually belonged to the Chidambaram temple. Kamban translated Ramayan into Tamil and Jayamgondar wrote Kalimgattu Parni that describe the conquet of Kalinga by Kulottanga Chola ytu 4 hand vonaba 39 alo and Dami
HISTORY OF KASHMIR alhana's Raiatarangini is the first systematically written historical text in Indian history. It deals with the five dynasties that ruled Kashmir. ' Lalitha Aditya Muktapada - The greatest of Karkotaka dynasty (I dy nasty to rule Kashmir He constructed the famous Martanda temple in Srinagar and promoted trade between Kashmir and China. " Avantivarma, the most popular king in the history of Kashmir promoted many irrigasion systems. With the help of his minister Suia, he constructed a dam across Vitsata river (Thelum). He belonged to the Utpala dynasty. ' Diddadevi, the only woman ruler in the history of Kashmir, was wife of Kshamagupta and belonged to the Poorvagupta dynasty.
t ARaB CONQUEsT oF SIND - 12 AD It was Calipha Walid who declared Jihad' on Sind on the complaint of Al-Hazaz, the Sultan of Persja. Dahir, the king of Sind, was a Brahmin and the majority pcople were Buddhists. Mohd oin Qasim led the Arab army, destroyed the golden city Multan and killed Dahir in the Battle o Results: I. The interaction between Hinduism and Islam led to the emergence of Sufism in Islam and Bhakti movement in Hinduism. 2. The Arabs translated Ganithashstra, Charak Samhita into Arabic languages and also adopted the popular play, Shatranj.Th3 3. Jizia, a religious tax on all non-muslims in the Islamic state was levied for the first time in Sind. However Women, children, slaves and Brahmins were exempted from paying this tax. Sind -Hurd
TURKISH CONQUEST OF INDIA Mohammed Ghazni - 998 1030 A.D. His actual name was Abu Qasim and he belonged to the Yamini dynasty that ruled Ghazni in Afghanistan. He attacked India as many as 17 times during the winter seasons. He defeated Jaipal of Kashmir, Daud of Sind, Rajyapala of Pratihars and Bhima- of Solankis. In 1025 he looted the Somnath temple which was the richest in India. The Jats of Haryana always created problems for Ghazni while on his journey back The Arab historians- Al-Beruni, Al-masudi and Utbi visited India along with him, Alberuni stayed at Varanasi and early medieval India Alberuni observed that a) India'spriestly classes were self-centered, deceptive, arrogant and indifferent b) The caste system was responsible for the defeat of Indians. c) Indians had no sense of history, strategies of warfare and no innovativeness He also wrote Jawahir-u learnt Sanskrit for 10 years. He wrote the most authoritative, source on alled KITAB- -HIND. OY TARIKH-I-HIND ir on mineralogy and Quanun-i-Masudi that dealt with astronomy.