HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
Differences between Jainism and Buddhism.: Non violence is not to be compromised within Jainism. Violence is inevitable in Buddhism. Idea of Salvation: Liberation trom desires was taught in Buddhism; Buddh advocated arma Marga'. Securing highest know ledge. Kaivalya is salvation; Jainism advocated Gnana Margai. Buddha remained silent and agnostic. He made no categorical statement regarding God. Existence ofGod: Mahavira declared that God exists but is noi responsible for evolution of Universe. Universe according to him evolved on its own.
End of Jainism: Vardhaman was survived by 13 disciples called Gandharas. Arya Sudharman (a.k Vijaya) became hcad of the Jain church after Mahavira. > The First Jain Council was held at Pataliputra and was presided by Sthulahahu or Sthulabhadra. The original teachings of Mahavira were compiled in the form of 14 Poorvas (old texts). In the first Council, the 14 Poorvas were reduced to 12 Chapters called Angas. After the first Council, Jainism got divided into Swetambars (followers of Sthulabahu, white clads) and Digambars (followers of Bhadrabahu). The Second Jain Council was held at Vallabhi in Gujarat. It was presided by Devavrata Kshamaramana. Here again the 12 Angas were reduced to 11 Upangas (Sub-Chapters)
Expansion of Jainism- ^- a Lauad JAIN AHO 1. Chandragupta Maurya was converted to Jainism by Bhadrabahu and he performed Sallekhana Vrata (anhiliation of soul or starving oneself to death) at Chandragiri at Sravanabelagola. 2. Kharavela, the greatest ruler of Chedi dynasty that ruled Kalinga, convened a Jain Council at Kumaragiri in 16 B.C. fo uning Swetambars and Digambars but his attempt failed. H* 3. Siddiraja and Kmarapala-rulers of Gujarat patronized Swetambar Jains. db Jaln monks call 4. The Rashtrakutas were the last great patrons of Jainism. Amoghavarsha, the greatest of promati Rastrakutas wrote the famous 'Ratnamalika' and Kairajamarga'. These two texts of Jainism T were written in Canarasi (Kannada in Prakrit form). Jainism soon lost patronage due to its adherence to non-violence and very soon it got assimilated by Brahmanism which dealt a final blow to its identity. Tunnm dachaya Li was the greatest, h
Contributions of Jainism- 1. Development of local languages (Prakrit)- bsc Caao a) Mahavira taught in Ardhamagadhi (Modern Bihari or Magadhi language). b) All Jain scriptures were written in Prakrit. e neatpoeta c) Badrabahu wrote Kalpasutras for Digambars in Prakrit. Gunadlaia d) Canarasi (Kannada) and Sauraseni (Marathi) were developed. Jauinas enoluu he2. First to develop Cave temple architecture- to die Cave temples were built at Kandagiri and Kumatagiri in Kalinga, Indragiri and Chandragiri at Sravanabelagola, and Badami in Karnataka. es p3. Development of Temples (Jain teples are called Basadis):- [ liurs &- tea ai Tintholhaaa 19
Aristanan a) Dilwara Temple in Mt. Abu, Rajasthan were built by Bhima I of the Solanki dynanty anemi a) Dilwara Temple in Mt. Abu, Rajasthan were built by Bhima I of the Solanki dynasty ot tat b) The statue of Bahubali ak.a Gomateswar at Sravanbelagola is the tallest statue in lndia,j 13. iri e MBl.a The reaction to the pogularity of Budhism and Jainim, hamarfiam emerged in the fom of Bhagavatism. Not only did it assimilate the popular features of Buddhism and Jainism, it also was thebts Jains were first to develop Indian sculpture. is monolithic and most perfect. It was installed by Chamudaraya, Minister of. dynasty (in South Karnataka). Atmc noudhc atu, is that er A c), Ghatikas were the Jain Centres of Learning . CG phash ananah. ound at - evolved ideas of its own with which pcople could relate easily.
HAGVATISM Vasudeva Krishna was the founder of Bhagavatis Its philosophy comprised of the three basic principles: a) haki e Devotion lo ac hieve Saation b) Praptt e. Total suender to God. e) Nishkama Karma ie Sellless act agvatism propounded that Gnanara of Jainis wll make man arrogant and therefore is not a wise choice. Similarly it argued that the Karmamarga of Buddhism is very relative in terms of good and bad and therefore not a viable option. Hence, Bhaktimarga as propounded by Bhagvatism is the most simplitied route to reach God
Jaiminiya Brahmana and Taiminiya Upanishad Krishna appears as teacher for the first time Bhagwad Giia, composed by Vedavyas, is the highest stage of Krishna's philosophy. Krishna's philosophy emerged around 1000 B.C. but-Bhagvatism became popular only in 6th because of Brahmanism's initi opposon to (as Krishi ritualism However, Shudras were ishna's philosophy opposed Brahmin later they appropriated it as a good defence against Jainism and Buddhism getting converted to the other religions and even other sections of the society were a a getting attracted to Buddhism and Jainism. This process had to be contained. So the priestly class Combssed divertedts atn to Bhavatis (as Krishna belonged to Yadavs). After they were successful, they hailed Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu and assimilated Bhagavatism into anva ahathaat awuansar rahmanism ne