HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
. Hobbies included dicing, bull fighting, fishing, dancing and boat racing . Burial practices: They disposed dead bodies in sitting posture, head facing north signaling Shiva worship The veershivas or lingayaths in karnataka and vishwa brahmins in Andhra pradesh still follow the same tradition. Partial burial Urn burial Coffin burial.
ECONOMY: . I V people were the pioneers in agriculture. They had the knowledge of seasonal cultivation. They were the first to cultivate cotton in the entire pre-historic period. Greeks came to takecotton and called Indus Valley as Sinden. Ekka i.e the Cart drawn by oxen was used for transporting agricultural commodities.
Trade and commerce: They were the first people in Indian history to go for international trade. They traded with mesopotamia, Sumeria, Greece, Egypt, Mongolia. They also imported several items from different places: Mesopotamia- Gold Perfumes-Greece Sumeria- Silver Egypt- Diamonds Mongolia- Agate, Lapis Lazuli. They also traded with South India and imported pearls and shells. The khetri mines in Rajasthan provided copper.
. Indus valley seals were found in mesopotamia at Tele-asmar. Mesopotamians called Indus Valley Meluha. formed the basis of metric system. between Mesopotamia and IVC. . In weights and measures, the numerical figure 16 and its multiples e Behrain (delimum) was the main entrance point in the trade The important ports were lothal, surkotada, balakot, suktazendor . Medium of exchange was Bartar system in the internal trade and Gold and Silver in the external trade. e Seals were exchanged only for marking the ownership of the consignments.
. Form of Governance They were ruled by rich merchants. The form of Governance is called Oligarchy (the rule of the rich or an elite group). toncn Indio.T has ben found. So it is Religion - No sacred text or place or organized system of worship assumed that they only had a belief system comprising of the following features- Worshipping Mother Goddess and also deifying women Worshipping only one male God i.e. Pashupati. Worship of animals, the most sacred being the 'Humped Bull Worship of Gilgimish- represented by a body comprising half of man and half of lion It was the mythological hero of Mesopotamia. Snake worship found at Gumla Worship of trees, stones and secret organs. > o
Art forms -comprised of Seals, pottery (especially BPW i.e. Black Polished Ware characterized by was war pa glossy, shiny appearance with pictures) and terracotta figurines. 1. Seals: they were the most beautiful of all Indus Valley art forms. Made of sandstone, soft rocks called size of Re.l coin. About 2000 is of Humpless Bull. Seals especially the ones found in Mesopotamia are important for fixing the chronology of Indus Valley with relation to other civilaztions. steatite procured from Vindhyas; seals were made in almost all shapes and in the Indus Valley seals were found. The most common representation 2. Terracotta Figures r They were the figures made of clay, mainly dolls for kids. >Mest e neeni mant Cult of Mother Goddess is clearly evident through these figurines. ela
3. Images ano Most beautiful of all the images found is that of a Bronze Dancing Girl at Mo 4. Script The Harappan people used a Pictographic (Language of pictures) script, written in a style called Bostophedon (right to left, left to right, and again right to left and so on). More than 400 pictographs have been used. The first pictograph was found in 1853. Pictography is claimed to ed by I Mahadevan but so far the script remains undeciphered Six races can be traced in the Indus Valley Zone : this race is regarded as architect of IVC. This is because their ethnic features are found in majority of the skeletons. Australoid Mongoloids Nigroloids Alpinoloids Meditteraneans
There are different theories that try to explain the decline of Indus Valley Civilizatio However, it must be kept in mind that the decline could very much have taken place due to combination of the following factors Tv c dt die Pro Aran invasion. ICO 2. Destruction ofsites due to floods. 3 Tectonic forces/earthquakes. 4. Ecological changes caused due to extensive deforestation, expansion of desert, salinisation of soil etc. It is also argued that land was not conducive for cultivation and therefore the civilization was not destroyed but deserted.
Faculty in Delhi. Teaching experience of more than 8 years in various offline and online institutes.