HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
INDO-ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE * The Islamic style is called Dome and Arch method. The native Hindu style that was prevalent during that time is called Slab and Beam method. The other aspects of Islamic style were huge buildings with lofty gateways and wide entrances. The Muslims also introduced floral designs. They borrowed decorative elements like Kalisa, Swastik and Lotus from the Hindus. Hindus adopted the domes and arches.
Architectural development took place in two stages: K 1 . Imperial Architecture It is witnessed in Delhi, Agra and Fatehpur Sikri. 1he architecture reflects the personal taste and interest of the Sultan and Mughal Badshah. Qutubuddin Aibak constructed Quwat-u-Islam mosque, the first pure Islamic construction and Adhai-din-ka-Jhopra (made by destroying a ddhi monastery). It was the place where he gave darshan at Ajmer. He laid the foundation for Qutub Minar to commemorate the victory of Islam on Indian soil. He could complete only the first-two storeys. The remaining was completed by ltutmish and dedicated to Bakhtiar Kaki. In Qutub Minar, black limestone with Sanskrit versus in praise of lord Vishnu is found at the base.Balban constructed Lal Mahal in Delhi, AMchitecliie nde ta ilaue daswa AXAnic and aunvaine^ te simple an appeaicnc, The simple Islamic style became decorative and grand under Alauddin Khilji. He constructed Alai Darwaza, an entrance to Qutub Minar; Hauz-i-Alai; Jamat Khana Masjid and also a city called Sitiin Delhi (this was the first time Delhiwas expanded).-Alai Darwaza-4 Ci-u
Under Tughlaqs, for the first time, thick sloping walls were built (for protection against extreme Aa weather and for strength). They made extensive use of cheaply available grey sandstones. - - Ghiazuddin Tughlaq contsructed the city of Tughlaqabad. Md.Bin Tughlaq constructed Swarea Dwara on the banks of river Yamuna. Feroz Shah Tughlaq constructed five cities apart from Feroz Shah Kotla, the tomb of his finance minister Telangani and Hauz-i-Khas in Delhi. Muna Significant changes in architecture took place under the Lodis. They were the first to construct structures on grafted platforms. They were the first to construct double domed structures, angular and octagonal structures and structures in Garden setting (e.g.Lodi Gardens in Delhi). The best cxamplc of Lodi architccturc is thc Jamat Khana Masjid constructed by Sikandar Lodi in Agra.
Mughal Architecture -nolebook It reflected basically the grand Persian style. Babur was responsible for Noor-ul-Afshan gardens in Agra. is tosc buit at kabuu Humayun's tomb in Delhi was constructed by his wife Salima Begum. It was the first structure in India reflecting the grand Persian style under the Mughals. Akbar was the real founder of Mughal architecture. His attempt was to synthesize the native styles with the grand Islamic styles. Particulary in his Mahalt Akbar was influenced by Buddhist Stupas. In Agra, he completed the fortification,and constructed Akbari Mahal, Jahangiri Mahal and Birbal Mahal. Diwan-i-Aam and Diwan-i-Khas in Agra were also buit by ba him.
Fatehpur Sikri It was actuallly a Jain settlement. However, Akbar constructed the Moti Masjid and the tomb of heikh Salim Chisti. The secular constructions here were Buland Darwaza constructed in 1572 to mark his victory against Gujarat. In the construction, Akbar used a new technique called half "purple dome borrowed from Persia. Jodha Bai Palace, Mariam Mahal and Panch Mahal were the other structures raunaini. in panc M.aaQ cova YU Cuen Akcu acal Jahangir constructed the tomb of his father at Sikandra near Agra. He was respon Shalimar Bagh Gardens in Kashmir. Noo of Bairam Khan in Delhi; the tomb of Itamad-ud-Daula (her father) in Agra and tomb of Jahangir at Shahdra near Lahore. mand jn anh A new, Jahangir and was used in Itamad-ud-Daula's tomb for the first time It was also the basis for Taj rjahan constructed the tomb of Abdur Rahim Kahn, son 4. technique called 'Petradurra (inlaid mosaic work) was introduced for the first time under t Mahal
Shahjahan's reign was the Golden age in Mughal architecture. He was called Engineer and the Architect for his technical perfection. In Agra, he constructed Khas Mahal, Sheesh Mahal, Angoori Bagh, Machehi Mahal, Mausambari and also built Moti Masjid in the Red Fort.ahona Taj Mahal, built from1631 to 1653, it took 22 ycars for completion. Till then Mumtaz Mahal's coffin was kept in Burhanpur where she was born. It is the only pure white marble building constructed with an estimated cost of 3 crore Dams. Ustad Isa Khan, the chief architect of Shahjahan had drawn the plan of Taj. A Venician engineer, Zerimano Verraneo was also consulted. In Delhi, Shahjahan constructed the Red Fort and within the fort, Diwan-i-Khas, Diwan-i-Aam and Rang mahal were built.
The Jama Masjid, the biggest mosque of India was also built by him. Aurangzeb construted the tomb of his queen Raha-ud-Durrani at Aurangabad on the model of Taj Mahal called Bibi Ka Maqbara (Mini Taj Mahal) 2. Regional / Provincial Architecture noubeo The Jaunpur School of acrchitecture was developed by the Sharqi dynasty.Its unique aspect was the absence of minarets. The Ataladevi Masjid, constructed by Ibrahim Shah Sharqi is the best example. In Bengal, the Iliyaz Shahi style developed within the capital city Pondua. Its unique aspect was that minarets were smaller than the main structure. Sikander Shah constructed Adina Masjid at Pondua, the biggest mosque in North-East, constructed on the model of the Great Damascus Masjid (Syria). cenve wnda In the Bahmani style of architecture, Red Sandstone wa extensively used. Very huge domes were built. Minarets were part of the structure. Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur, constructed by Md. Adil Shah II, is the world's second biggest dome. and chatabava a mavjie in lendua a byMd Butuulaha et org est dome, cvornunan tanc w