HISTORY (Modern) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
AUTONOMOUS STATES BENGAL It was the richest Subah under the Mughals. Murshid Quli Khan was the real founder of the autonomus state of Bengal. In 1700 A.D, he was made Deupty Governor of Bengal by Aurangzaeb. He was the first to introduce revenue farming system in Bengal called Izradari (deciding the right of revenue collection by means of auctioning) The Izradari system as such was first introduced by the Mughal wazir Zulfikar Ali. Murshid Quli founded the city of Murshidabad and shifted the capital city from Dacca to Murshidabad. He granted emergency loans called Taccavi to the cultivators. He nullified the Golden Farmana and forced the English merchants to pay customs duties. Mughal Emperor Md. Shah added Orissa to Bengal when Murshid was the Governor of Bengal.The second Nawab of Bengal Sujauddin, Son-in-law of Murshid Quli got Bihar added to Bengal by the Mughal The third Nawab, Sarfaraz Khan was killed by Alivardi Khan who was then the Deupty Governor of Bihar.
Alvardi Khan He renovated the Calcutta Port harbor to encourage the external trade. The population of the city Calcutta increased phenomenally during his time due to the settlements of Lucknavi and Sindhi merchants ' Siraj-ud-Daula (1756 - 1757) The reason for the clashes between Siraj-ud-Daula and the English were a) The English supported Shaukat Jung against Siraj. b) They refused to hand over the corrupt accountant, Kishan Das c) They also refused to demolish the fortifications constructed in the wake of the Third Carnatic War. On June 18, 1756 Siraj declared war and defeated the English. The defeated English took shelter at Fulta islands. On June 20, 1756 the 'Black Hole Incident' is supposed to have taken place (it was mentioned by Howell, the President of the Calcutta Council). Siraj changed the name of the city from Calcutta to Alinagar and appointed ManikChand as the Governor of Calcutta and returned back to Murshidabad. In Dec 1756, Colonel Robert Clive and Admiral Watson were sent by Madras Government. In February 1757, the Alinagar Treaty was signed between Siraj and the English.
Clive conspired with Mir Zafar, the Chief Commandor of Siraj, Rai Durlabh (the Zamindar of Burdwan), Manik Chand(Governor of Calcutta) and Jagat Seth, the richest banker of Bengal and Oomi Chand, the rich Sindhi merchant (also t Sindhi merchant (also the mediator between Clive and other conspirators). BATTLE OF PLASSEY- (June 23, 1757) Robert Clive commanded 3200 troops. Mir Madan and Kishan Lal led the troops of Siraj. The battle was fought on the banks of river Bhagirathi. Siraj was killed by Miran who was the son of Mir Zafar. The Company got the 24 Parganas district. Clive was given the title 'Sabjung' by the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II. Mir Zafar exempted the English East India Company from payinjg the customs duties in the external trade. In 1759, Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, the French Commander Jean Stuart Law and Pahalwan Singh, a Zamindar of Bihar attacked Bengal but were defeated. In 1759, the Dutch were defeated by the English in the Battle of Bedara. In 1760, Mir Zafar was replaced by Mir Qasim as the Nawab of Bengal.
MIR OASIM- (1760 1764) le was the ablest successor of Alvardi Khan. He granted three Zamindaris(Midnapore, Chittagong and Burdwan) to the East Indian Company. He offered 50% share in the Churnam trade (betelnut trade) to the English and also sanctioned 5 lakh rupees as aid to the English in their war effort against the French. He shifted the capital city from Murshidabad to Monghyr. He employed Armenians to train the Bengal Army. The main cause for differences between Nawab of Bengal and the East Indian Company was the misuse of Dastaks', which were passes or lincenses issued by the President of th Council to the English merchants claiming exemption from customs duties. In June 1764, Mir Qasim abolished customs duties forall merchants in Bengal. which were passes or lincenses issued by the President of the Calcuta
RATiO BU XAR Oct 22, 1764. In July, 1704, MirQasim was defeated by the English. Mir Qasim, the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and Sujala the Nawab of Oudh) formed an alliance against the English. Hector Munn commanded the English army. He defeated the Allied forces at Buxar and Kara. Mir dasim died in Delhi in 1777. Mir Zafar was the Nawab of Bengal when the battle of Bux ar took llahabad Treaty August 1765. It was signed between Clive and Suja-ud Dala on one hand and; between Clive and Shah Al l the other hand Suja ud-Daula altogether paid 40 Lacs (20 Lacs as compensation and 20 lacs for reataininghmas Nawab) and also surrendered Allahabad and Kara districts to t tnglish tasferred Allahabad and Kara to the Mughal Emperor and agreed to pay 26 lacs per annum as rental in ueturn for the revenue collection rights (Diwani) in Bengal, Bihar (hissa 1he l reaty made the l nglish de,hK.to andak. /ure rulers of Bengal in 1705, Mir /afar died and Nazam-ud-Daula became the Nawab.
In Sept 1765, Robert Clive introduced Dual Government in Bengal. Under the system, powers - were divided into Diwani (revenue) and Nizamat (general administration). A Deupty Subedar was appointed who was answerable to the Company when he discharged the Diwani functions and to the Nawab when he dealt with Nizamat. Md. Raza khan was the first Depty S the new system. In 1772, Warren Hastings suspended the Dual administration. Nazam-ud-Daula was gratnted pension of 6 lac rupees per annum. Government and took over the