HISTORY (Modern) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas College, DU * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre. *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
MODERN INDIAN HISTORY ADVENT OF THE EUROPEANS The Europeans that came to India were 1. Portuguese 2. Dutch 3. English 4. Danes 5. French 1. Portugese Bartholomew Diaz was the first navigator to cross the Equator. Vasco da Gama discovered the sea trade route to India and landed at Calicut on May 17, 1498. He was received by King Zamorin of Calicut (Manuvikrama Varma). In 1502 A.D., the Portuguese established their settlements at Cochin, Calicut and Cannanore. Cochin was the main centre for the Portuguese trade upto 1 530 AD. Vasco da Gama was buried at Cochin.
Governors 1. Fransisco de Almada- He was the first Portuguese Governor and founder of Blue Water Policy 2. Alphanso de Albuquerque was the second Portuguese Governor. He conquered Goa from the Sultan of Bijapur in 1510 A.D. He founded the idea of Portuguese empire in India' and further encouraged conversions and forced marriages. 3. Nino de Cunha shifted the capital city from Cochin to Goa in1530. St. Xavier, the popular Jesuit father visited India during the tenure of Alfanso de D'souza. Settlements- On the West Coast, the Portugese had settlements at -Ormuz, Dabool, Cambay, Surat, Goa Daman and Diu, Salsette, Bassein, Kalyan. The East Coast settlements were-Santhome near Chennai and Hugli in Bengal. On the Malabar Coast Portugese settlements were -Cochin, Calicut and Cannanore.
Trade- Their maximum trade was carried out in spices. They were the first to start licensing system and to follow monopolistic trade. The liscenses given by the Portuguese were called Cartazes Downfallof the Portugese in India- In 1612, Captain Best of the English defeated the Portuguese in the Battle of Swalley and they lost Surat to the English. In 1620, Ormuz was lost to the Dutch In 1630, Hugli was lost. In 1663, Cochin was lost to the Dutch. In 1668, Mumbai was given away as dowry to Prince Charles II of Englnad who married the Portuguese Princess Catherine of Briganza. In 1739, Peshwa Bajirao I occupied the Salsette and Bassein islands. They were only left with Goa, Daman and Diu upto 196
2. DUTCH ast India Company was founded in 1603 A D I heir first ettlerncnt in India was in centre Machilipatnam (in Andhra Pradesh) in 1605 AD. Upto 1689 1, Puli ot wa, the ma of Dutch trade. 1689 onwards Nagapatnam became the main centre of Dutch trade in India. Their other settlements were Bhimunipatnam (ncar Vishkhapatnam) which was the first Municipal Corporation in India. In Bengal, Cassimbaar, Chinarah, ugli, ca and Patna ( imbazar, Chinsurah, Hugli, Dacca and Patna (in Bihar) were their other settlements. On the West Coast- Ormuz, Cambay, Surat, Broach and in North, Agra was their settlement. On the Malabar Coast,Cochin was of primemportance The Dutch traded maximu extile and indigo. The best indigo was produced in Bayana in Gujarat and Sarkaz near Agra. The Dutch carfied out trade called Intra-Asian and Euro-Asian (India to Indonesia and Indonesia to Europe) trade. Btn Indonesia was the main centre for entire Dutch trade in Asia and hence the Dutch trade was called Batvi Trade.
Anglo-Dutch Rivalry In 1622, 23 English merchants were killed by the Dutch at a place caled Ambayano in Indonesia (Ambayao Massacre). In retaliation, the English defeated the Dutch in the Battle of Bedara in 1759. The Dutch surrendered all their settlements in India in return for all English settlements in Indonesia 3. ENGLISH John Mindan Hall was the first English to visit India in 1599, the court of Akbar in Agra. In December 1600, English East India Company was founded as a Joint Stock Company of shareholders. It was given a Charter with monopoly rights for 15 years by Queen Elizabeth In 1604, the monopoly was extended for an indefinite period by James I. They founded their first settlement/factory at Machilipatnam in 161 A.D. with the permission of Md. Quti Qutub Shah of Golconda through a Golden Farmana. In 1639 A.D., Francis Day obtained permission from The Raja of Chandragiri, to settle at Chennapatnam (Chennai). In 1655, Chennai/Madras became the first Municipality.