HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
Later Vedic Age: 1000 B. C-600 B.C Drastic changes took place in the society during this period. It was the time of socio-political upheaval. The entire later Vedic literature was composed during this period. 1. The main centre of Aryan settlement shifted from Saptasindhu to Ganga Yamuna Doab (U.P, Bihar, and Bengal) 2. New Aryan tribes were formed. a. Kuru b. Panchala c. Videha d. Anga e. Magadha f. Kasi The battle of Mahabharat was fought around 956 BC in Kurukshetra (Land of Kurus), whose capital was Hastinapur.
POLITICAL FEATURES: 1 The office of king became autocratic and divinely endorsed as Sabha and Samiti-become defunct. Samiti disappeared as tribal states became territorial and spread far and wide. Thus distance became a hindrance and participation in the assembly also became time consuming. Expansion of bureaucracy also happened simultneously: Regular officers like Akshavepa (Superintendent of Gambling Houses), Bhagadugga (Chief Tax Collector), Balisadaka 2. (Collected Voluntary offerings), Suta (Charistcer) and Royal Bards. toex Mahabharata, Jayasamhita, Satasahasra samhita, Panchamveda (Fifth Veda) were recorded around this time. Sutas preserved these through oral compositions.
SOCIAL LIFE rna system gat well established with four Varnas. The fourth varna was also acknowledged as society now depended on Shudras (agriculturalists) for cultivation. The system got deeply entrenched. 2. Varna ashram Dharmas were introduced: Bharmacharya, Grihasthya, Vanaprastha, and Sanyas were the four ashrams or stages of life through which each person had to go through. They were first mentioned in Jabala Upanishad. Ist three were compulsory for Kshatriyas. - 1st two were made compulsory for Vaishyas. - Shudras were exempted from the system of ashramas.
- Although a the four ashrams were compulsory for Brahmins, Sanyas was the ashram dharma never followed. 3. Dwija System: the first three varnas were considere qualification for performing Vedic rituals and ceremonies. It meant New birth with white sacred thread ceremony or Upanayana. Sudras did not belong to Dwija. d 'twice born'. The system was to provide K 4. Gotra System: It literally means 'Cow shed'. Gotra refered to the name of the ancestor, in order to identify the antecedents of a family. The Gotra is usually the name of the sage/rishi from whom the family has descended. It evolved to bar intracaste marriages and to maintain purity of blood. Same gotra marriages were also barred
t 5. Untouchability was of two types: Untouchability by bith and untouchability by profession. Four types of marriages: a) Bramoh Marriage: Marriage arranged by elders according to Vedic rituals. Nyoga b) Prajaptya: Marriage arranged by elders but not according to Vedic rituals.f c) Anuloma: Marriage between upper caste man and lower caste woman d) Pratiloma: Marriage between upper caste woman and lower caste man. bvttatutd sko Anuloma and Pratiloma both were unacceptable but sll Anuloma was preferred over Pratiloma becema Children born under Anuloma were Vratyas (half fallen) and children born under Pratiloma were a mottu Chandalas (fully fallen). Both Vratyas and Chandals were untouchables by birth. levsiute) alao Nishad were excommunicated and prohibited people of the tribe. Kiratas were the uncivilized, forest tribe. )Antyaja were those who lived outside the village. They were untouchables as they cleansed the society and hence were not to stay within but outside the society. Nishad, Kiratas and Antyaja- a the three were untouchables by profession.