HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
SUFI MOVEMENT -(the word sif meant wool which implied simplicity) Sufism can be defined as Islamic m God). It developed first in Iraq. The first Sufi saint was Begum Rabia of Bashera in Iraq.Sufi orders were called Silsilas. Maximum number of orders were founded in Afghanistan which spread to India. great azad 1. CHISTI It was founded by Sheikh Abdul Chisti. It was introduced in India by Sheikh Moinuddin Chisti. His dargah is at Ajmer. Qutubuddin Bakhtiar Kaki was the chief disciple of Moinuddin. Iltutmish dedicated Qutub Minar to Bakhtiar Kaki. Sheikh Nizamuddin was the most popular Sufi saint in India. Amir Khusro, the greatest musician and literary giant was the disciple of Sheikh Nizamuddin
npradaya was followed which meant burying the body of disciples near A system called Nadasa guru as one family. Sheikh Salim Chisti was the last great saint of Chisti order. He was held in great respect by Akbar. Qamkhanas were hermitages of C histi saints outside the city 2. SUHRAWARDI It was founded by Shihabuddin Shuhrawardi and introduced in India by Bahauddin. It was the richest order and very soon became unpopular. 3. PIRADAUSIA It was the only Sufi order which was founded and developed within India. Founded by Sharafuddin, it was confined to Bihar. He composed Maqtub with the lives and teachings of Sufi Saints) at and Mulfazat literature (it dealt 4. QADRI This most secular order was founded by Sheikh Jilani Qadri. Dara Shikoh, son of Shahjahan followed this order. 5. NAQSHBANDI It was founded by Sheikh Biqabullah but Sheikh Niyamtulla was the greatest scholar in this school of thought which was most conservative. Aurangzeb followed this order.
INDO-ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE * The Islamic style is called Dome and Arch method. The native Hindu style that was prevalent during that time is called Slab and Beam method. The other aspects of Islamic style were huge buildings with lofty gateways and wide entrances. The Muslims also introduced floral designs. They borrowed decorative elements like Kalisa, Swastik and Lotus from the Hindus. Hindus adopted the domes and arches. Architectural development took place in two stages: K 1, Imperial Architecture It is witnessed in Delhi, Agra and Fatehpur Sikri. The architecture reflects the personal taste and interest of the Sultan and Mughal Badshah.Qutubuddin Aibak constructed Quwat-ul-Islam mosque, the first pure Islamic construction and Adhai-din-ka-Jhopra (made by destroying a Ahu*monastery). It was the place where he gave darshan at Ajmer. He laid the foundation for Qutub Minar to commemorate the victory of Islam on Indian soil. He could complete only the first-two storeys. The remaining was completed by Iltutmish and dedicated to Bakhtiar Kaki. In Qutub Minar, black limestone with Sanskrit versus n praise of lord Vishnu is found at the base.Balban constructed Lal Mahal in Delhi. Arcwtecie unde The simple Islamic style became decorative and grand under Alauddin Khilji. He constructed Alai Darwaza, an entrance to Qutub Minar; Hauz-i-Alai; Jamat Khana Masjid and also a city called Stf in Delhi (this was the first time Delhi was expanded). Alai Daxwaza- hs and AunwauneA to
r protection against extrem Under Tughlaqs, for the first time, thick sloping walls were built (fo wa weather and for strength), They made extensive use of cheaply available grey sandstones. Ghiazuddin Tughlag contsructed the city of Tughlagabad. Md.Bin Tughlaq constructed Swarga Dwara on the banks of river Yamuna. Feroz Shah Tughlaq constructed five cities apart from Feroz Shah Kotla, the tomb of his finance minister Telangani and Hauz-i-Khas in Delhi. Miwa Significant changes in architecture took place under the Lodis. They were the first to construct structures on grafted platforms. They were the first to construct double domed structures, angular and octagonal structures and structures in Garden setting (e.g.Lodi Gardens in Delhi). The best cxample of Lodi architccturc is thc Jamat Khana Masjid constructed by Sikandar Lodi in Agra.
Mughal Architecture nolebook. It reflected basically the grand Persian style. Babur was responsible for Noor-ul-Afshan gardens in Agra. is ts at kabt. Humayun's tomb in Delhi was constructed by his wife Salima Begum. It was the first structure in India reflecting the grand Persian style under the Mughals. Akbar was the real founder of Mughal architecture. His attempt was to synthesize the native styles with the grand Islamic styles. Particulary in his Mahal con tru tion Akbar was influenced by Buddhist Stupas. In Agra, he completed the fortification,and constructed Akbari Mahal, Jahangiri Mahal and Birbal Mahal. Diwan-i-Aam and Diwan-i-Khas in Agra were also built by him
Fatehpur Sikri It was actuallly a Jain settlement. However, Akbar constructed the Moti Masjid and the to Sheikh Salim Chisti. The secular constructions here were Buland Darwaza constructed in I mark purple do other structures. . omb ot 572 to his victory against Gujarat. In the construction, Akbar used a new technique called half me borrowed from Persia. Jodha Bai Palace, Mariam Mahal and Panch Mahal were the Jahangir constructed the tomb of his father at Sikandra near Agra. He was responsible for halimar Bagh Gardens in Kashmir. Noorjahan constructed the tomb of Abdur Rahim Kahn, son of Bairam Khan in Delhi; the tomb of Itamad-ud-Daula (her father) in Agra and tomb of Jahangir Ha to at Shahdra near Lahore . atner ab Akban to wdnthemae di se koraku ,garn mDve A new technique called Petradurra (inlaid mosaic work) was introduced for the first time under Jahangir and was used in Itamad-ud-Daula's tomb for the first time. It was also the basis for Taj t Mahal in dduahal architecture He was called Engineer and the