HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas College, DU * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre. *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
6. In the second expedition that started in 1312 Malik Kafur defeated Veeraballala III of the Hoysala dynasty of Dwarasamudra 7.In 1313 he interfered in the civil war between Sundarapandya and Veerapandya, made Sundara the king of Madurai and installed a victory pillar at Rameswaram Jrvaded ed Inaua wax na REFORMS To curb the nobility, Alauddin banned marriages amongst the noble families; consumption of liquor and appointed Mohitsibs to keep an eye on the activities of the nobles. Mohitsibs were actually the Royal Censor Officers to uphold the Koran but Alauddin used them as spics to check thc powcr of nobility. Military Reforms- He was the first Sultan to commission a permanent standing army. He abolished the Inamdari system and paid salaries in cash. Each soldier was paid 234 Tankas per CO annum. This was called Italaa system. To avoid duplication, he introduced Dagh systenm (branding the horses), Market Reforms- The main purpose of controlling market prices was to maintain the permanent standing army. Alauddin appointed a controller of markets called Shahana-i-Mandi and also spies to oversee the implementation of the price list. They were called Barids. Price regulation was followed in and around Delhi only. PAic* hel
Revenue reforms- 1.He stoppedthe Iqta system 2. Abolished hereditary revenue officers at the village level called Chaudhuris, Khots Muqaddams and Patwaris. 3. He introduced crop estimation method and a method for assessing the reve system (Grain estimation system) Of all the kings in Indian history he charged the highest land tax (50 % of the gross produce) However, it was the East India Company that charged the highest land tax of 55% in the entire Indian history. 4. He was the first Sultan to sanction loans called Taccavi and founded a separate department called Diwan-i-Mustakharin for the purpose of collecting revenue arrears nue called Kankuth Religious Reforms He was the first Sultan to separate religion from State and who refused to pay allegiance to the Calipha. . Malik Kafur created reign of terror after killing Khizr Khan and Shahabuddin (first Sultan born to a Hindu mother Kamala Devi). Qutubuddin Mubarak Khilji, the last of the Khiljis took the title Calipha. He was killed by his Wazir, Nassiruddin Khusrau who come to power with the title Khusrau Shah. Khusrau was a Hindu converted to Islam and he ordered installing idols in mosque. He was killed by Ghiazuddin Tughlaq
TUGHLA DYNASTY (1320 1414 A.D.) This dynasty was founded by o Tughlaquabad. He was the first introduce postal He was stamped to death by an elephant. It was Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya who gave the prophecy "the Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325- 1351) His actual name was Jauna Khan and he was the most was a prolific scholar in Pers iyazuddin Tuglag or Ghazi Malik. He also founded the city of tan to introduce postal system by employing horse couriers ns. He enlightened of all the Delhi sulta ian and Arabaic languages,maths, natural sciences, theology and an gement and his various measurcs that excellent lexicographer. It was lack of practical sense of jud made the Sultan a failure. His controversial reforms were- a) Increased land tax by 40% in the Ganga Yamuna Doab. It was the first act that made the Sultan unpopular. b) S hifted the capital city from Delhi to Daulatabad (Devgiri) so that he could rule over Deccan in a better way.He left Delhi for two years and lived in a camp called Swarga-dwara as Delhi was ra Ziauddin Barani, the real intention of the Sultan was to punish the people of Delhi vaged by a form of plague at that time. According to the contemporary historian token currency of copper coins, but the Copper coins actually he effect of the copper currency hat made the Sultan unpopular was his attempt to conquer Khorasan in Central uge losses to the treasury and weakened the economy of the empire to a great c) Tughlaq introduced a contained bronze which were minted at Tripuri in Kalinga. T on the economy was hyperinflation and it again proved disastrous, d) The last act t Asia. This led extent.
His other reforms were as follows:or 1. He sanctioned Sandbar loans to the cultivators and founded a separate department for agriculture called Diwan-i-Kohi. 2. He was the first Sultan to openly celebrate Hindu festivals like Holi and to go to the temples He held the Jain scholar Janaprabha Suri in great respect. 3. In 1341 Ibn-Batuta, a traveler from Morraco visited the court of Tughlaq. He was made the Qazi of Delhi. He wrote Kitab-i-Rehala. 4. He was the first Sultan to conduct census in city of Delhi. The Sultanate Empire expanded to its maximum during his reign. Nevertheless, it also started disintegrating.. He died in 1351.while going to Tatta in Sind. The en awan to ban-thi untem 2 Sat Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351 - 1389) He was the second Sultan born to a Hindu mother and also second Sultan to come to power when his father was alive. 1. He abolished all the additional taxes called Abwabs and collected only four- a) Khams-A tax on the spoils of the war i.e., 1/5th aaat b) Kharaz -Land Tax. Cpaid by th mualim akat - Charity tax collected for the maintenance of educational institutes called Madarasas c) Z (2-2.5%) on individual income per annum d) Jiziy Brahmins. a - Religious tax on non-muslims (token tax). Feroz collected Jiziya even from ud mualim - Ushrr tex are
Faculty in Delhi. Teaching experience of more than 8 years in various offline and online institutes.