HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
5. Untouchability was of two types: Untouchability by bith and untouchability by profession Four types of marriages: The cuustom a) peramoh Marriage: Marriage arrangedby elders accordingtoVedic rituals,N1 a b) Prajaptya: Marriage arranged by elders but not according to Vedic rituals. cohalatien c) Anuloma: Marriage between.upper caste man and lower caste woman. d) Pratiloma: Marriage between upper caste woman and lower caste man Anuloma and Pratiloma both were unacceptable butstll Anuloma was preferred over Pratiloma. becenaa Children born under Anuloma were Vratyas (half fallen) and children born under Pratiloma were a motthan Chandalas (fully fallen). Both Vratyas and Chandals were untouchables by birth. (levute) alac Nishad were excommunicated and prohibited people of the tribe. Kiratas were the uncivilized, forest tribe. Antyala were those who lived outside the village. They were untouchables as they cleansed the society and hence were not to stay within but outside the society. Nishad, Kiratas and Antyaja- all the three were untouchables by professiqn. aamu lau .
ECONOMY (1000 -600 BC) oppeaxd Introduction of Iron called Krishna ayas (Black Metal) Technology was instrumental in brin out the changes in the economy. atized the production process - Tools of production were brought within the reach f every section of society. Especially the lower sections were most benefited from its introduction forests were cleared in order to avail more land for agriculture. As a result,- extensive cultivation began with sickles, threshers etc. More land reclamation led to tremendous increase in agricultural economy and more production. For the first time surplus was generated which served as capital for exehange inwestment Urbanisation began- Towns were created in large numbers. Therefore this age is also called
Second Age of Urbanisation. Trade and commerce developed which led to Vaishyas leaving agriculture. Trade became more lucrative. Shudras took over agriculture and thus they relieved other sections of the society WSof production processes. This also improved the conditions of Shudras. Guilds were formed-Association or guilds of merchants and craftsmen was called Sreni. The head of the merchant guild was called Sresti. The head of the Craftsmen guild was called Jestaka. Proliferation of craft activity took place. Manufacture of a type of pottery called PGW (Painted Grey Ware), in Sanskrit called Neelalbhita , also began during this period, Gach uoas an autou
VEDIC LITERATURE (I) Sruti means the revealed ones'- All the four Vedas/ Samhitas were compiled by great sages. They all form part of the Sruti literature. (2) Smrii Commentaries on the four Vedas). They include Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads, 6 Vedanges and 4 Upavcdas. 1. Rig Veda: it is the first text in the World literature and first text in Indo European language *its main theme is the prayers addressed to different Gods. *It is the most important Veda as Gayatri mantra is a part ofit A*1017 hymns / ver ses are divided into 10 mandalas. I IX Mandala belong to Rig er Vedic period and I and X Mandala were compiled during later Vedic Age and a d added to Rig Veda. wau *The priest who recites Rig Veda is called Hotri.
2. Sama Veda - It is full of Ragas or tunes. It is the first text to deal with Indian music Sangeeta Shastra Its main theme is metre or volume called Chchendus which deals with recitation of the verses. The priest who recites Sama Veda is called Udgatar (Master of Voice) 3. Yajur Veda >It deals with rituals and ceremonies.Divided into two parts sukla or white yajurveda, which deals with Aryan ceremonies and Krisna or Black yajurveda dealing with non-Aryans ceremonies ->This text is composed in prose The priest who recites Yajur Veda is known as Adhvaryu 4. Atharvana Veda (lt was not considered as Veda for long time) It was composed entirely by non-Aryans. Its themes include witchcraft, sorcery and invoking evil spirits. -> It is considered as Veda because it- 1. deals with Ayurveda (Indian Medicine), 2. deals with Ganithashastra (Science of Mathematics), 3. deals with Rekhaganita (Geometry) No Brahmin ever recites Atharvana Veda. (ktnnom"
Smritis - 1. Brahmanas- these are related to the conduct of various ceremonies. o8 b 2. Aranyakas are the texts relating to Forest Life (Vanprastha ashram). anishads numbering 108 are also known as Vedantas (last chapter of Vedas). They ce (Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads) are parts of every Veda. They deal with Metaphysics. InduanKatho Upnishad deals with the concept of death in the form of dialogues between Nachiketa, his father and the Lord of Death-Yama Eso Upanishad deals with creation. Jabala Upanishad -Varnaashrama dharmas were mentioned in this Brihadaranyko Upanishsad of Yagnavalkya talks about transmigration of soul Mundaka Upanishad- Our national slogan Satyameva Jayate' is part of this which is also found on Ashokan pillar inscription at Sarnath Chandogya Upanishad - It talks about the childhood of Lord Krishna for the first time. Keno Upanishad - It talks about Uma or Parvati. Swetas swataro Upanishad It defines Shiva for the first time, Maho upani^had- dualo wilHi fHu uenc danayho nnmasiana dharmas weemeanionedin tis. od. faniaivak eAs
the Vedas. 4. Six Vedangas - these were meant to e a) Niryukta - etymology. CShudy o onin ot won b) Siksha Phonetics (relating to pronunciation) c) Chehendus Metre (relating to recitation) d) Vyakarna Grammar e) Kalpa Rituals. It is the most important because was the basis of Indian law. Kalpashastra consists of the following - Grihasutra or Dharmasutras- that deals with household ceremonies Sulvasutras that deals with Rekhaganitha (Geometry) Srutasutras- that deals with social ceremonies f) Jyotish Astronomy (study of the movement of planets). It helps in understanding events in our life. 5. Four Upavedas were written to make one's life happy, safe and secure. They are: BattaVawana wrote A i. Ayurveda: Medicines 11. Ghandhavra Veda: Music (tu iii. Shilpashastra: Sculpture iv. Dhanurveda: Archery wr 4ent on 9ndran alttuu)