HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
Y 12. New Chola Dynasty It was founded by Vijayalaya Chola who was a feudatory of the Pallavas. Tanjore or Thanjavur was their Capital city.Aditya Chola was the first great king, who also defeated the last of the Pallavas, A the village administarion under the Cholas Thc Rastrakuta and Chola dynastic wars began during his times. Krislina II of the lR was defeated by Parantaka in the Battle of Pullalur in 919. Krishna III of Rastrakutas defeated and killed Parantaka in the Battle of Tukkonam in 939 Rajaraja Chola was the greatest of the Chola rulers He defeated Kadambas and Western Gangas.Vim Rajaraja Chola.He attacked Ceylon, destroyed the Northern Ceylon. Rajaraja Chola held titles such as Chola martanda, Shivapadasekhara, Mummadicholadeva and Madurai onda rajitavarma.Parantaka I issued the famous Uuaramerur inscription that talks about Pandyas, Cheras, Banas, aladitya of the Eastern Chalukyas became the son-in-law of capital city Anuradhapur and anncxcd + REFORMs: constiuct a He was the first to introduce the system of auditing the village accounts. He was not law maker but a guardian of the law. It was a State with least bureaucracy. However it was a very democratic state. Autonomy was given to village assemblies and local self government was given importance. He started the practice of appointing crown prince or Yuvaraj as the head of either revenue or military departments. -He was the first to issue Tamil inscriptions with detailed dynastic history He constructed the famous Brnadeswaram or Rajaraieswaram temple at Tanjore, the biggest temple in India.
Chola Administration- The unique aspect of the administration was the absolute autonomy granted to the village assemblies. Cholas were called founder fathers of local self governments. Perundrum was the Secretariat under the Cholas, headed by Olainayakam (Chief Secreatory). Village Adminstration was constituted by: 1. Ur - a common village settlement for all castes. 2. Agrahara - village settlement of Brahmins 3. Brahmadeya - villages around the temples. 4. Nagara - settlements of merchants. stati bia vlapu unde^ aireut Sabha was the Legislative Assembly. Elections were held for the village executive committees electing atleast 30 members by means of lottery system. The Executive Committee was answerable to Sabha and would be in office for three years. The most important function of the executive committe was water distribution. EUecidive committraA Vauyam The Uttaramerur inscription talks about election code- Candidates aged between 35yrs 70yrs, educated, men of integrity and morals, first time contestants and regular tax payers were eligible to contest elections. Disqualifications included criminal background, men with immoral character and sons of Devadasis. Women were not allowed to contest elections.
Chola Society Sanskritisation process began with Cholas. Attempt was made by the lower castes to imitate upper castes customs, language and traditions to enhance their social status thus leading to upward mobility. This theory was first putforth by M.N. Srinivas, the reknowned sociologist in his text social change in Modern India Devadasi system (temple dancing girls) also started during this period Ihe custom of Veeragal continued which refered to the class of warriors sacrificing their lives for the sake of king. Soiutuasdivi wneas They had prosperous trade with Persia on the West Coast and China on the East Coast. The prominent guilds under the Cholas were Manigramam (the guild of weavers), Nanadasi (the mobile merchants) and Telekai (the guild of oil merchants), Yeedhi was the settlement of weavers. The gold coin Varaha was in large irculation The ce tatus hola Culture- Ihe Dravida style of temple architecture reached its perfection under the Cholas. The best example is the Brihadeswara temple or Rajarajeswaram at Tanjore.The Chola craftsmen excelled Lxav in the art of making bronze images of Nataraja, The image of Nataraja actually belonged to the Chidambaram temple. Kamban translated Ramayan into Tamil and Jayamgondar wrote Kalimgattu Parni that describe the conquet of Kalinga by Kulottanga Chola ytu 4 hand vonaba 39 alo and Dami