HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
Sangam Polity: From 2nd Century B.C. to 3rd Century AD., the three dynasties Chera, Chola the dynasties,who dominated the polity of the Sangam age. and Pandyas CHERAS- Ruled over the Malabar Coast (of present Kerala). King Sengattuvan was the mot popular king of Cheras. He was the first to construct a temple for Kannagi and was the first to introduce the Pattini cult, Rechachara was his title. Karur and Vanji were the two capital cities. *CHOLAS-Ruled the South East Coast with the first capital city at Urayur and the second capital city at Kaveripatnam. King Elara was the first Indian to conquer Ceylon. Karikala Chola was the greatest of the Chola rulers. He constructed a dam on river Cauvery and also built the port city Kaveripatnam2 which was originally called Puhar. Kariteala nroduco aun PANDYAS-Ruled the Central part of Tamillakam with capital cities- Madurai and Kamatapura. King Neduzeliyan, the greatest of Pandyan kings, performed Aswamedha Coutth
Sangam Age Economy TRADE: There was tremendous growth of external trade between the deep South and Rome. By 1t Century A.D., Romans had occupied Egypt. Hippolus, merchant of venitia was the first to discover monsoon trade winds, a knowledge facilitating better navigation. The Romans exported large quantities of spices from the port city Muzris. Black pepper was called Yavanapriya meaning 'liked by Greeks'. A temple of roman king Augustus was also found at Muzris. Kaveripatnam on the South E Coast was the most important port under the Cholas in the silk trade with China. It was most frequented by Roman Ships. Arikamedu, another port under the Cholas was known by Greeks as Puduki. A Roman factory and gold coins of emperor Nero were found here.
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0 THE GUPTA DYNASTY They were the Samantas or feudal subordinates of Kushans who hailed from Gaudadesha (Bengal). Sources of Gupta History INSCRIPTIONS * a) Allahabad Prashasti (eulogy) which was composed by Harisena, the Chief Commander of Samudragupta, talks about his greatness as an administrator and as great conqueror who waged 100 battles. *b) Me hrauli Iron Pillar Inscription -It talks about the greatness of Chandragupta Vikramaditya II and his victory against the Sakas rc) Eran Copper Plate Inscription, found in Delhi was issued by Bhanugupta. It is the first written recorded evidence on the custom of Sati. NUMISMATICS The Guptas issued silver coins on the model of the Kushans. In the coins of Samudragupta, he is shown fighting with lions and playing harp (Veena-like musical instrument) Chandragupta I, in his silver coins is found depicted along with his wife, Kumaradevi. In the coins of Chandragupta Vikramaditya II, the signs depicting Aswamedha are found. A, hirth ,story kun.ar Swa rw
ngupa Nam ant, a me signs depicting ASW amedha are tound LITERATURE Literature is an important source to construct the history of Abignanashakuntalam, Meghasandesham, Ritusamharam, Kumarasabhavam, Raghu Malavikaagnitram, In his writings, the Gupta society is reflected. The various writings show the socio-cultural milieu of the empire Vajjika wrote Kaumudimohotsavam. t is a description about Chandragupta I coming to power Visakhadutta wrote the drama Devichandraguptam which talks about Chandragupta II coming to throne after killing hisbrother Ramagupta and marrying his sister-in-law, Druvadevi Sudraka wrote the drama Mrichyakatikam meaning 'Clay doll, the story of prostitute Vasantsena and Bramhin Charudutta' Bhasa wrote Vasavadatta, a play on the urban life under the Guptas, the love story of King Karthike Guptas. Kalidas wrote the famou vansam and LEGAL TEXTS . Meetakshara written by Vigneshwara, deals with social law and customs of the time and is most important in the context of inheritance issues. it still forms the basis of many Indian Laws. 2. Neetisara written by Kamandaka, also deals with law and is popular as The Arthashastra of the Guptas.