HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
MARATHA STATE AND CONFEDERACY Sisodia) Shivaji (1627 - 1680) was born at Shivnir in 1627. His parents were Shahji Bhonsle ( and Jijabai. Dadaji Khondev was the tutor of Shivaji and Samardh Ramdas, his Guru. At the ag of 19, Shivaji became the Jagirdar of Pune. He conquered the forts of Bijapur Torna, Kondana, Mahuli and Mahud; constructed the fort Raigarh near Torna which became his capital city. Chandrakant More, the head of the Muvali tribes was his close friend. The Sultan of Bijapur sent Afzal Khan against Shivaji. Krishnaji Bhaskar became the mediator between the two. Shivaji killed Afzal Khan at Pratapgarh and defeated the Mughal armies sent by Aurangzeb under the leadership of Shasta Khan. In 1664, he attacked Surat, the richest city in 17th Century India. In A1 1665, Shivaji was defeated by Raja Jai Singh sent by Aurangzeb and was forced to sign the Treaty of Purandhar. As per the treaty, Shivaji surrendered 22 Mughal forts (out of 35 that he had captured).
Sambhaji, son of Shivaji became the Mughal Mansabdar. Both Shivaji and Sambhaji were to pay n a personal visit to the Emperor. In 1666, buth Shivaji and Sambhuji visited Agra but they were, imprisoned. They escaped from Agra jail and returned to the Maratha State via Mathura, , Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna, Bhubaneshwar and Telangana. In 1670, Shivaji attacked Surat for the second time. Surat lost its importance and Bombay rose to prominence. In 1674, Shivaji declared the formation of Swaraj, performed his coronation and took the titles 'Chatrapati' and Haindava Dharmoddarak. A priest named Gagabhatt officiated the ceremony. Lohan Nischal Puri, another priest conferred the status of Kshatriya upon Shivaji. In 1675, Shivaji conquered Zinzi, Thiruvannamalai and Vellore forts with the co-operation from the Sultan of Golconda, Abul Hasan Tanisha. In 1680, Shivaji died of cancer.
? Shivaji's Administration: Shivaji was influenced by the famous Wazir of Ahmeadnagar Malik Ambar in his administration. There were 27 departments at the Central level. Chatrapati was assisted by a Council of 8 ministers called Astapradhans- 1. Peshwa PM 2. Amatya - Finance Minister, also known as Majumdar. 3. Mantri Chronicler; also known as Waqa-i-Navis. 4. Senapati - Chief Commander; also known as Sar-i-Naubath. 5. Sachiva - For internal affairs. He was also known as Shrunavis. 6. Suman In-charge of external affairs and also known as Dabir. 7. Pandit Rao In-charge of ceremonies, education and religious affairs, also known as Danadakshya. 8. Nyayadeesh In-charge of law. The last two were exempted from participating in wars. Swaraj was divided into - Pranth (provinces), Tarafs, Paraganahs and Gramas (Gaam).
REVENUE ADMINISTRATION- Kathi was the yardstick for measuring the land, first introduced by Malik Ambar- Shivaji first araj was initially 30% but later made 40%. The two controversial taxes es under the control of introduced Ryotwari System and later replaced it with Jagirdari system. The land tax in Sw collected by Shivaji were Chauth and Sardeshmukhi. Both were colletcted from the Mara outside Swaraj. However Chauth was exclusivey from the Maratha stat Mughals or the Sultan of Bijapur. Sardeshmukh was from the terr Marathas was felt and their authority acknowledged. Chauth was 1/4h of the land tax whereas Sardeshmukhi was 1/10th of the individual income per annum. itori es where the influence of
MILITARY ADMINISTRATION man There were two types of armies: 1. Berzis - Standing or permanent army. 2. Shiledars - Mercernaries. The military officers were Nayak (10), Hawaldar (50, Jamadar (250), Hazari (1000) and han, a Mughal historian says that Shivaji commanded 200 warships Panchhazari (5000). Khafi K tationed at Kolaba. Shivaji suppressed the pirates called Zinziras and Angrias in the Konkan Coast with his navy * Shivaji's Welfare Measures- Secularism was the declared State policy. Forced conversions were banned throughout the empire. Child-marriages andmoney lending by Marwari money lenders were also banned Sambhaji (1680 1689) He was the first son of Shivaji. He gave shelter to Prince Akbar, who had revolted against Aurangzeb. He was captured at Sangameswar bank of river Navdi in 1689 and killed bv ukarab Khan at Tolapur onh March 1689, one day before Gudipadwa, New Year festival, Sahu, son of Sambhaji and Yesubai wife were deported to Agra.