HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
The literary sources of that period are an important source of information to construct the history of that time. Important literary works are as follows- Xa) Tolkappiyam written by Tolkappiyar. It is the carliest text and deals with grammar. b) Maduraikanji written by Malgudi Marudan. It describes the city of Kaveripatnam and is the most important source on the trade and commerce in the deep South. c) Murugarupadai is a song addressed to Murugan (Son of Shiva), the most powerful God of South, written by Nakkirar. d) Palamoli - It deals with day to day rituals of Tamilians written by Mururai Ariyar. e)Thirukkural was written by the great saint Thiruvalluvar and is full of proverbs. Its theme is ethics and moral values of the said period. It is also called Bible of Sangam literature. Aggatiyam adtti
botha of Three Epics- a) Silappadigaram (The Jewelled Anklet) -It was written by Ilango Adigal, 4he -grandson-ef Se Karika a Ghola. The hero of the epic, Kovelan was a merchant of Kaveripatnam. The heroine of the epic, Kannagi, was the wife of Kovelan. She became Goddess of Chastity and inspired a cult called Pattini cult (Worship of Kannagi). Neduuzeiwsahe b) Manimekhalai -It was written by Sittanai Sattanar. It is the story of Manimekhala, the daughter of Kovelan and Madhavi, a beauty who excelled in fine arts. Udaikumar was the villain of the epic. Manimekhala becomes a Buddhist nun. It was the first text to talk about the development of fine arts and Buddhism in deep South. c) Saivaga Chintamani-It was written by Tiruttakadevatar and is a story of a magnificent character called Saivaga who finally became a Jain monk. The epic also talks about popularity of Jainism in deep South
Sangam Polity: From 2nd Century B.C. to 3rd Century AD., the three dynasties Chera, Chola the dynasties,who dominated the polity of the Sangam age. and Pandyas CHERAS- Ruled over the Malabar Coast (of present Kerala). King Sengattuvan was the mot popular king of Cheras. He was the first to construct a temple for Kannagi and was the first to introduce the Pattini cult, Rechachara was his title. Karur and Vanji were the two capital cities. *CHOLAS-Ruled the South East Coast with the first capital city at Urayur and the second capital city at Kaveripatnam. King Elara was the first Indian to conquer Ceylon. Karikala Chola was the greatest of the Chola rulers. He constructed a dam on river Cauvery and also built the port city Kaveripatnam2 which was originally called Puhar. Kariteala nroduco aun PANDYAS-Ruled the Central part of Tamillakam with capital cities- Madurai and Kamatapura. King Neduzeliyan, the greatest of Pandyan kings, performed Aswamedha Coutth
Sangam Age Economy TRADE: There was tremendous growth of external trade between the deep South and Rome. By 1t Century A.D., Romans had occupied Egypt. Hippolus, merchant of venitia was the first to discover monsoon trade winds, a knowledge facilitating better navigation. The Romans exported large quantities of spices from the port city Muzris. Black pepper was called Yavanapriya meaning 'liked by Greeks'. A temple of roman king Augustus was also found at Muzris. Kaveripatnam on the South E Coast was the most important port under the Cholas in the silk trade with China. It was most frequented by Roman Ships. Arikamedu, another port under the Cholas was known by Greeks as Puduki. A Roman factory and gold coins of emperor Nero were found here.
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