HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
treaty, the Marathas on behalf of the Mughals were to maintain law and order in Deccan and for" that they would collect Chauth in 6 Mughal subahs in Deccan. Yesubai, mother of Sahu was released from Agra jail under the treaty. The First Peshwa founded the Maratha Cofederacy of 5 states with himself as the Head of the Confederacy. The 5 States were *1. Peshwa of Pune 2. Bhonsle of Nagpur 3. Scindias of Gwalior 4. Holkars of Indore 5. Gaikwads of Baroda. The Peshwa also revived the Saranjama System. Under the system, Jagirs were granted to the System. Under the system. J powerful Maratha families called Mokkasas (Mokkasadars) and ^owrdan
na Moctatha II. Bajirao I (1720 1740) He became the Peshwa at the age of 19. He was the founder of the idea Hindupad Padshahi' (Hindus to rule India) and further declared that it was his ambition to see the Maratha Empire spread upto Attok in Sind. The Peshwa defeated the Nizam of Hyderabd twice in 1728 and in 1738. He forced him to sign Mungishgaom and Durulsarai treates respectively. In 1739, the Peshwa defeated the Portuguese and occupied their settlements, Salesette and Bassain. In 1739, when Nadir Shah, the king of Persia attacked Delhi, the Mughal Emperor Md. Shah requested for the services of Bajirao I. The Peshwa, on his own, occupied Malwa and Bundelkhand. He was called second Shivaji for his expertise in Guerilla warfare. An excellent painter, he 3 connected with Mastani episode. He defeated Sambhaji II of Kolhapur and united the Maratha State.* la>1
III. Balaji Bajirao (1740-1761)" He became Peshwa at the age of 18. His actual name was Nana Sahib. Raghunath Rao Bhonsle of Nagpur conquered Carnatic, Mysore, crossed river Mahanadi, defeated Alvardi Khan (the ruler of Bengal) and collected Chauth from all defeated States. 3* battle o^ Panipat has H qustutn wth shsulo rals Indua Wiith tha batle , Mauattas u>* THIRD BATTLE OF PANIPAT: JAN 14, 1761: Your not ad It was fought between Marathas and Ahmad Shah Abdali of Persia. Abdali attacked India for the first time in 1757 A.D. The Mughal S\ Emperor, Alamgir II, requested for the help of the Marathas. Dattaji Shinde sent by the Peshwas, ti defeated Timur Shah- son of Abdali and Govemor of Punjab.The Maratha leaders who e participated in the Battle were Danaji Gaikwad, Malhar Rao Holkar, Jankoji Scindia, VishwasA wle Rao (Son of Peshwa) and Sadashiv Rao Bahu (cousin of Peshwa). Bahu was the supreme aed commander. Malhar Rao Holkar withdrew from the participation. Ibrahim Gardi was the tCommander of Maratha artillery forces.The main cause for the defeat of Marathas was the lack in of support from the Sikhs and Jats, The English were the ones who benefitted most from the third tle. batte of Panipat. The Peshwa died of shock. He was called the founder of the greater Maratha empire. 0
IV. Madhav Rao (1761-1771) He was the last great Peshwa,popular for his administrative reforms. The death Madahv Rao was felt more disastrous than the Third Battle of Panipat as per Joseph Mastyne. V. Narayan Rao Narayan Rao was murdered by Raghunath Rao Bhonsle (Raghuba). VI. Madhav Narayan The posthumous son of Narayan Rao was declared Sixth Peshwa by Nana Pha dnavis. FIRST ANGLO MarATHA W R (1779-1782 A.D.) In 1775 Raghuba signed Surat Treaty with General Gioddard of Rombay. In 1776 Nana signed Purandhar Treaty with Governor General Warren Hastings, promising to give Salsette " the English maintained neutrality.In 1779 the Bombay Government under Goddard declared war on Pune Government of Peshwa. Nana was supported by Mahdaji Scindia. They defeated General Goddard and forced him to sign Wedgaon Convention in 1779, by which the English lost all their settlements. The war ended with Salbai Treaty in 1782. Warren Hastings agreed to recognize Madhav Narayan as Peshwa. Raghuba was deposed. As promised, Marathas surrendered Salsette and agreed to support the English in the second Anglo-Mysore war.
SEconD ANGLO MARATHA wAR (1803 - 1805 A.D.) After the First Anglo Maratha war, Marathas succeeded in gaining their lost power and prestige. aji Scindia that escorted the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II from Ayodhya to Delhi. hadnavis supported the English in the Anglo-Mysore wars. In 1798 Peshwa Madhav a was made the Peshwa. In 1800 Nana Phadnavis, the last great statesman in the history of Marathas died.Peshwa Bajirao II, with the support of Scindia got the brother of Jaswant Rao Holkar murdered. Holkar retaliated by defeating the Peshwa and by looting Pune.In 1802 the Peshwa signed a treaty with Lord Wellesley called LiBessain Treaty, requesting the help of the English. In 1803 Bhonsle and Scindia declared war on Peshwa. Bhonsle was defeated by Arthur Wellsley, brother of Governor General Lord Wellesley and signed Subsidiary Alliance System. Scindia was defeated by Lord Lake. Lake entered Del.hi and imprisoned Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II. However Lake was defeated by Jaswant Rao Holkar. In the second expedition, Lake defeated Holkar. Holkar took shelter in the court of Raja Narayan died. Bajirao II, grandson of Raghub l Ranit Singh and as the ls to sign the Subsidary Alliance System. (I8os)
THIRD ANGLO MARATHA WAR (1818) Peshwa Bajirao Il got the ambassador of Gaikwads, Gngadhar Shashtri murdered by Triambakji Dengle. Peshwa refused to hand over Triambakji to the English and declared war. He was defcated in the Battles of Kirki, Asti and Koregaon. Results of the Anglo-Maratha War Maratha confederacy got dissolved. A State called Satara was created and Pratap Singh, a distant relative of Shivaji was made King of Satara. 1ys The last Peshwa, Bajirao II was granted pension of U lacs per annum and was deported to Bethur 13-S ncar Kanpur.