HISTORY (MEDIEVAL) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
TURKISH CONQUEST OF INDIA Mohammed Ghazni 998 1030 A.D Hs actual name was Abu Qasim and he bclonged to the Yamini dynasty that ruled Ghazni in Atghanistan. He attacked India as many as 17 times during the winte scasons, He defeated Jaipal of Kashmir, Daud of Sind, Rajyapala of Pratihars and Bhima-I of Solankis. In 1025 he looted the Somnath temple which was the richest in India. The Jats of Haryana always created problems for Ghazni while on his journey back. The Arab historians- Al-Beruni, Al-masudi and Utbi visited India along with him, Alberuni stayed at Varanasi and learnt Sanskrit for 10 years. He wrote the most authoritative, source on early medieval India called KITAB- -HIND. or TARIK H-1-kirD Alberuni observed that- a) India'spriestly classes were self-centered, deceptive, arrogant and indifferent. tb) The caste system was responsible for the defeat of Indians c) Indians had no sense of history, strategies of warfare and no innovativeness. He als wrote Jawahir-ul-Jawahir on mineralogy and Quanun-i-Masudi that dealt with astronomy
Pirdausi, an Indian, was invited_by Ghazni to write his biography. Shahnamah written by Pirdausi is called the Odyssey of Persian literature. Ghazni was impressed by Sanskrit language and issued Silver coins with Sanskrit verses. Mohammad Ghori- His atal name was Moizuddin, the Sultan of Ghori in Afghanistan. His titles were Jah (one who sets World on fire). He was also known as Burshikhan (Idol Breaker). His main objective was to make Islam popular in Indja. He was very much troubled by a tribe called Khokaras. He appointed Aibak as his representative in India. an-i-Soaz as w* uJe
DELHI SULTANATE (1206 1526 A.D. Five dynasties of Sultanate: I. Slave Dynasty 2. Khilji Dynasty 3. Tughlaq Dynasty 4. Sayyid Dynasty 5. Lodhi Dynasty 1206 1290 1290 - 1320 1320 - 1414 1414 1451 1451 --1526 od. The Slave dynasty had the The Tughlaqs ruled for the longest maximum number of sultans (10) and the Lodhis had the least (3) SLAVE DYNASTY and also akshan bekksh It was founded byQutubuddinAibak (who was popularly known as Lakh Baksh) togetherwith Mongbarni in Central Asia and Yalduz in Lahore, who were the two representatives of Ghori. Aibak was also known as Lakh Baksh and Akshar Baksh for his patronage given to poets. He His name wan died at Lahore while playing Chogam (polo) Aram Shan, son of Aibak was the first Sultan deposed by the Sardars (military commanders). o Iltutmish or Altamash, son-in-law of Aibak, is considered the real founder of the Slave dynasty ayed
Aram Shan, son of Albak was the first Sultan deposed vy dl Iutmish or Altamash, son-in-law of Aibak, is considered the real founder of the Slave dynasty.- His reforms included: 1. Introduction of Silver coins called Tankas and Copper coins called Jittals for the first time. 2. An association of 40 nobles called Chihalgani was created by Iltutmish for the first time. 3. He was also the first to introduce Land Assignment System called Iatadari. 4. Iltutmish was the first to introduce the principle of hereditary succession. 5. He was the first to construct sarais in Delhi. It was during his time that the Mongols invaded India for the first time under the leadership of engiz khan. Razia Sutana- She was the only woman ruler in the history of Delhi.She promoted an Abyssinian slave Yakub to the highest rank Amir-i-Alore i.e. the Chief Commander of Cavalry This was not at all appreciated by the nobility. She was killed by the Court officers while returning back from Bhatinda along with Altunia, her cousin. Minaz-us-Siraz wrote the famous Tabagath-i-Nasiri on the administration of Nasiruddin (1245- 65) who had taken over the throne after Razia.
Ghiasuddin Balban 1265- 1286 e was the greatest ruler of the Slave dynasty and his actual name was Ulughukhan. He was first to introduce the theory of divine origin of kingship, declaring the Sultan as the Shadow of God (Jille-i-ilahi) He abolished Chihalgani, the association of 40 nobles that constituted the most important part of the nobility and was crucial to any decision making. He also re first time in order to curb the power of nobles and created a separate department Diwan-i-Araz for military admintration. He introduced the royal customs: Shizda and -Peibes i.e, prostration, kissing the fingers/hand of Sultan and touching his f et.^- The Persian New Year festival, Navaroz, was introduced for the first time His eldest son Prince Mohammed died in the fight against Mongols and Balban died of shock organised the Iqta system for the
Kaiqubad - 1286-1290 He was the grandson of Balban and the last ruler of the Slave dynasty. Interestingly he was h irst Sultan to come to power when his father Bugra Khanwas alive. Bugra Khanwas theseco son of Balban and the Governor of Bengal.He was deposed by Jalaluddin Khilji as he Wa incompetent and paralytic. lai KHILJI DYNASTY acc +o It was founded by Jalaluddin Khii (1290 -1295), the most democratic of all Delhi Sultans Mongols invaded India under the leadership of Ulagu Jalal defeted Mongols and converted therm into Islam. The converted Mongols were called Naya Musalmans Allaudin Khilji, the first son-in-law of Jalaluddin went to Devgiri and defeated Ramachandra Dev of the Yadava dynasty. It was the first victory of the Muslims in the South (1295 A.D.) ohuch meant tobei Allaudin Khilji- 1295-1315 Powtu tem Sutans to rN He was the greatest of the Delhi Sultans. His ambition was either to conquer the world like Alexander or to found a new religion like Prophet Mohammed. He took the title Sikander-i- Sahani (second Alexender)
KHILJI IMPERIALISM 1. In 1296 Rana Karnadeva of Gujaratwas defeated. Alauddin captured his wife Kamala Dev and Malik Kafur was made the Chief Commander of Alauddin. 2. In 1299 Rana Hammir Dev of Ranathambore was defeated. 3. In 1303 Alauddin attacked Mewar and defeated Rana Ratan Singh. According to Malik Mohammad Jayasi who wrote Padmavath, Rani Padmini, the wife of Rana Ratan Singh was the main attraction for Alauddin which led to the attack 4. In 1305 he defeated Rana Mahalakdev of Malwa and became the emperor of Hindustan. Expeditions in South India were conducted by Malik Kafur. In 1309 he defeated Ramchandradev of Devagiri 5. In 1310 Prataprudradev of the Kakatiya dynasty of Warrangal was defeated.
6. In the second expedition a started in 1312 Malik Kafur defeated Veeraballala III of the Hoysala dynasty of Dwarasamudram, in 7.In 1313 he interfered in the civil war between Sundarapandya and Veerapandya, made Sundara the king of Madurai and installed a victory pillar at Rameswaram. timus Mano invaded Jn ia wax no e To curb the nobility, Alauddin banned marriages amongst the noble families; consumption of liquor and appointed Mohitsibs to keep an eye on the activities of the nobles. Mohitsibs were actually the Royal Censor Officers to uphold the Koran but Alauddin used them as spies to check the power of nobility.