HISTORY (ANCIENT) BY RAJNI J HA
ABOUT ME: Faculty of GS in Karol Bagh, Delhi College, DU * . . Bsc Chemistry Honours from Ramjas * MA English from JMI e MA sociology MA psychology B.ed from IPU Former faculty member at paramount coaching centre *Teaching experience of five years in various prominent coaching centres
5. Four Upavedas were written to make one's life happy, safe and secure. They are: i. Ayurveda: Medicines Bcuttavaana wrote Abanai 4ent an 9ndran (cult twAL) 11. Ghandhavra Veda: Music (the ii. Shilpashastra: Sculpture iv. Dhanurveda: Archery u Religious reform started happening towards the end of the later Vedic age. Religion by this time had become a monopoly of the priestly class and more complicated. It had become very costly and beyond the reach of common man. It denied salvation to the Shudras. 6th Centuary B.C. was marked by a string of intellectual currents all over the world.In India, a group of thinkers called the "Sramanas' emerged in the Rig Vedic Age. They were the earliest critics of the Vedic religion Jainism who cau All Tirthankaras before Mahavira were Sramanas (23). The Sramana school of thoug iricise the role of Brahmins. By 6h Centuay B.C., 6 philosophical systems called 'Darshanas' were founded in India- a) Sankhyashastra by Kapila
b) Yoga by Patanajali c) Nyaya by Gautama d) Vysheshika by Kanada.they were the first to found the atomic theory of Universe.Their main philosophy "Man comes from dust and returns to dust e) Poorvamimansa by Jaimini f) Uttaramimansa by Vyasadeva Badarayan 6th Centuary BC thus posed challenges and brought about new intellectual thought. Jainism was It began with 23 Tirthankars before Mahavira, but their protest was not emphatic and decisive against Brahmanism as much as Buddhism.
BUDDHISM The important sources for Buddism are: (a) Ceylonese chronicles Mahavamsam by Mahnama and Deepavamsamare the most important sources (b) Chinese chronicles (c) Tibetan chronicles (Divya vadan) According to the Ceylonese texts Buddha was called Siddharth, and his parents w re Siddhodhana and Mayadevi, who belonged to the clan of Sakyas (also known as Sakyamuni Gautama was his Gotra name. He was born in Lumbini in Nepal Tarai in 563 B.C. on full moon day of Visakha masa (Budh purnima). Mayadevi died during delivery and Gautami became his step mother. Devadutt, son of Gautami and step brother of Siddharth, was a friend turned foe. Siddharth married Yasodhara, princess of Koilas. At the age of 29, Siddharth entered the city of Kapilvastu with his favourite chariot driver, Chenna and his favourite horse, Kantaka. He came
astu with his favourite chariot driver, henna and his favourite horse, Kantaka. He came across 4 scenes: (a) A man suffering due to old age. (b) A man suffering due to disease (c) A dead body. (d) A saint whose face was brimming with happiness. He made up his mind to relieve mankind of misery. At the age of 29, on a full moon day, he along with Chenna & Kantaka secretly left the palace. This is known as Mahabhinishkrama (The Great Departure). Kantaka died on the spot in grief. Siddharth first went to Urvila and became a disciple of two gurus- Alara Kama and Rudraka. They taught him Yoga & Sankhya he was not happy as his questions remained unanswered. He left and reached Gay 35, sat for rigorous mediation on the banks of stream, Niranjana in the land daughter (Vaishak intuitive knowledge). It is said that Indra sent a demon, Mura, t shastra. But a at the age of of Samaga. Sujata of Samaga offered him rice and milk. His meditation lasted for 48 days. On th 49th day a full moon day), he got enlightenment called Bodhi (knowledge above senses or o disturb Siddharth but he mained unperturbed. Prithvi (Goddess of Earth) was the witness to his enlightenment when he re became Buddha. is first disciple was Mahakasyapa who became his student at the age of five 5 disciples to whom he delivered his first sermon at Sarnath in a deer park Siddhartha had Dharmchakra parivarthana (how the wheel of dharma moves) las uwRAa
The first men to be influenced by the teachings of Buddha were King Ajatasatru of Magadha and King Prasenjit of Kosala. Buddha converted a bandit, Angulamali, and Amrapali a.k.a. Ambapali (the seductress), the Court dancer of Ajatasatru to Buddhism. He converted Rahul to Sanyasa. At the age of 80, Buddha reached Kusinara and became the guest of an untouchable, Chunda who offered pork. Buddha consumed it, had diarrhoea and died (Mahaparinirvana) at Kusinara. Teachings of Buddhas - 4 Noble Truths - 'Arya Satyas' a. The world is full of misery. b. The cause of misery is zeal (Trishna agni) or excess of desire. c. Zeal can be surmounted. d. To conquer zeal, one should follow Arya Astangamarga (Eightfold Path) Eightfold Path comprises of the 8 Principles for a good life. He also prescribed Madhyama Marga (Middle Path) i.e. the Life between two extremes, a life of balance