India was the first country to receive the status of a pioneer investor for exploration and utilization of polymetallic nodules.
India is one among the top 8-countries to implement a long-term programme on exploration and utilization of Polymetallic Nodules Through Ministry of Earth Sciences it carries survey and exploration, environmental studies, technology development in mining and extractive metallurgy. 0.5 m
Polymetallic nodules (also called as manganese nodules) are small potato-sized (from millimetres to tens of centimetres in diameter) lumps of minerals found in deep sea.
Penrhyn Basin near within the Cook Islands.
North central Pacific Ocean
COLOMBIA ECUADOR Iquitos Yurimaguas BRAZIL Peru Basin in the Southeast Pacific PERU Chanchamayo PACIFIC OCEAN Puerto Maldonado BOLIVIA 300 km 300 mi HIL
RAQ C HIN A E4ST CHINA EGYPT IN D IA SUDAN YEME E4 ETHIOPIA KENYA Southern tropical Indian Ocean in a region termed the Indian Ocean Nodule Field (IONF) I N D ONES TANZANIA N D I AN O C E A N AUSTRALIA SOUTH AFRICA
On the seabed the abundance of nodules varies and is likely controlled by the thickness and stability of a geochemically active layer that forms at the seabed.
Nodule growth is one of the slowest of all known geological phenomena, on the order of a centimeters over several million years.