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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1917-1947)
Round Table Conference The British government adopted the strategy of talking to different political parties by convening the Round Table Conferences. The first Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 at London and it was boycotted it by the Congress. . In January 1931 in order to create a conducive atmosphere for talks, the government lifted the ban on the Congress Party and released its leaders from prison. On 8 March 1931 the Gandhi-lrwin Pact was signed. As per this pact, Mahatma Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil-Disobedience Movement and participate in the Second- Round Table Conference.
Round Table Conference . In September 1931, the Second Round Table Conference was held at London. Mahatma Gandhi participated in the Conference but returned to India disappointed as no agreement could be reached on the demand of complete independence and on the communal question In January 1932, the Civil-Disobedience Movement was resumed. The government responded to it by arresting Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel and by reimposing the ban on the Congress party
Poona Pact (1932) By 1930, Dr Ambedkar had become a leader of national stature championing the cause of the depressed people of the country While presenting a real picture of the condition of these people in the First Round Table Conference, he had demanded separate electorates for them. .On 16 August 1932 the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald made an announcement, which came to be as the Communal Award. According to this award, the depressed classes were considered as a separate community and as such provisions were made for separate electorates for them. Mahatma Gandhi protested against the Communal Award and went on a fast unto death in the Yeravada jail on 20 September 1932.
Poona Pact (1932) . Finally, an agreement was reached between Dr Ambedkar and Gandhi. This agreement came to be called as the Poona Pact. The British Government also approved of it Accordingly, 148 seats in different Provincial Legislatures were reserved for the Depressed Classes in place of 71 as provided in the Communal Award . The third Round Table Conference came to an end in 1932. The Congress once more did not take part in it. Nonetheless, in March 1933, the British Government issueda White Paper, which became the basis for the enactment of the Government of India Act, 1935
The Second World War and National Movement In 1937 elections were held under the provisions of the Government of India Act of 1935. Congress Ministries were formed in seven states of India. . On 1 September 1939 the Second World War broke out. The British Government without consulting the people of India involved the country in the war. . The Congress vehemently opposed it and as a mark of protest the Congress Ministries in the Provinces resigned on 12 December 1939. . The Muslim League celebrated that day as the Deliverance Day. In March 1940 the Muslim League demanded the creation of Pakistan
Individual Satyagraha . During the course of the Second World War in order to secure the cooperation of the Indians, the British Government made an announcement on 8 August 1940, which came to be known as the 'August Offer' . The August Offer envisaged that after the War a representative body of Indians would be set up to frame the new Constitution. Gandhi was not satisfied with is offer and decided to launch Individual Satyagraha . Individual Satyagraha was limited, symbolic and non-violent in nature and it was left to Mahatma Gandhi to choose the Satyagrahis. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first to offer Satyagraha and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment. Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahi and imprisoned for four months. The individual Satyagraha continued for nearly 15 months
Cripps Mission (1942) The main recommendations of Cripps were: . The promise of Dominion Status to India . Protection of minorities Setting up of a Constituent Assembly in which there would be representatives from the Princely States along with those of the British Provinces, . There would be provision for any Province of British India not prepared to accept this Constitution, either to retain its present constitutional position or frame a constitution of its own.
Cripps Mission (1942) The major political parties of the country rejected the Cripps proposals. Gandhi called Cripp's proposals as a "Post-dated Cheque". . They did not like the rights of the Princely States either to send their representatives to the Constituent Assembly or to stay out of the Indian Union. The Muslim League was also dissatisfied as its demand for Pakistan had not been conceded in the proposal
Quit India Movement (1942-1944) At this time, leadership was provided by Ram Manohar Lohia, Achyuta and S.M. Joshi. The role of Jayaprakash Narain in this movement was important. . Large number of students also left their schools and colleges to join the movement. The youth of the nation also participated in this movement with patriotism. Strikes, demonstrations and public meetings were organised in various towns and cities. Slowly the movement reached the rural areas
Indian National Army During the course of the Second World War, armed revolutionary activities continued to take place. On 2 July 1943, Subhas Chandra Bose reached Singapore and gave the rousing war cry of 'Dilli Chalo' . He was made the President of Indian Independence League and soon became the supreme commander of the Indian National Army. He gave the country the slogan of Jai Hind. The names of the INA's three Brigades were the Subhas Brigade, Gandhi Brigade and Nehru Brigade. The women's wing of the army was named after Rani Laxmibai.
Cabinet Mission (1946) . The Cabinet Mission also proposed the formation of a Union of India, comprising both the British India and the Princely States. The Union would remain in charge of only foreign affairs, defence and communications leaving the residuary powers to be vested in the provinces. A proposal was envisaged for setting up an Interim Government, which would remain in office till a new government was elected on the basis of the new Constitution framed by the Constituent Assembly. . Both the Muslim League and the Congress accepted the plan.
Mountbatten Plan (1947) On 20 February 1947, Prime Minister Atlee announced in the House of Commons the definite intention of the British Government to transfer power to responsible Indian hands by a date not later than June 1948. Thus, to effect the transference of that power Atlee decided to send Lord Mountbatten as Viceroy to India. Lord Mountbatten armed with vast powers became India's Viceroy on 24 March 1947. The partition of India and the creation of Pakistan appeared inevitable to him. After extensive consultation Lord Mountbatten put forth the plan of partition of India on 3 June 1947. The Congress and the Muslim League ultimately approved the Mountbatten Plan.
Indian Independence Act 1947 The salient features of this Act were: The partition of the country into India and Pakistan would come into effect from 15 August 1947. The British Government would transfer all powers to these two Dominions A Boundary Commission would demarcate the boundaries of the provinces of the Punjab and Bengal. . The Act provided for the transfer of power to the Constituent Assemblies of the two Dominions, which will have full authority to frame their respective Constitutions.
Indian Independence . The Radcliff Boundary Commission drew the boundary line separating India and Pakistan. .On 15th August 1947 India, and on the 14th August Pakistan came into existence as two independent states. Lord Mountbatten was made the first Governor General of Independent India, whereas Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the first Governor General of Pakistan