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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
Henry Vivian Derozio and the Young Bengal Movement Henry Vivian Derozio was the founder of the Young Bengal Movement. . He was a teacher in the Hindu College, Calcutta. . His followers were known as the Derozians and their movement the Young Bengal Movement. They attacked old traditions and decadent customs. They also advocated women's rights and their education. They founded associations and organized debates against idol worship, casteism and superstitions.
Swami Dayanand Saraswathi and the Arya Samaj The Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswathi at Bombay in 1875. the Vedas" . He believed the Vedas were the source of true knowledge. His motto was "Back to . He was against idol worship, child marriage and caste system based on birth. He encouraged inter- caste marriages and widow remarriage. . He started the Suddhi movement to bring back those Hindus who had converted to other religions to its fold. . He wrote the book Satyartha Prakash which contains his ideas.
Arya Samaj . The Arya Samaj, though founded in Bombay, became very powerful in Punjab and spread its influence to other parts of India. It has contributed very much to the spread of education. The first Dayanand Anglo-Vedic (DAV) School was founded in 1886 at Lahore. Many more schools came up in other parts of India in later years. The Arya Samaj had also spread nationalism. . Hundreds of Arya Samaj patriots, including Lala Lajpat Rai, took part in the Indian freedom struggle.
Prarthana Samaj . The Prarthana Samaj was founded in 1867 in Bombay by Dr. Atmaram Pandurang . It was an off-shoot of Brahmo Samaj. It was a reform movement within Hinduism and concentrated on social reforms like inter-dining, inter- marriage, widow remarriage and uplift of women and depressed classes. Justice M.G. Ranade and R.G. Bhandarkar joined it in 1870 and infused new strength to it. Justice Ranade promoted the Deccan Education Society.
Swami Vivekananda and Ramakrishna Mission The original name of Swami Vivekananda was Narendranath Dutta and he became the most famous disciple of Shri Ramkrishna Paramahamsa . In 1886 Narendranath took the vow of Sanyasa and was given the name, Vivekananda . He preached Vedantic Philosophy. He condemned the caste system and the current Hindu emphasis on rituals and ceremonies. Swami Vivekananda participated at the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago (USA) in September 1893 and raised the prestige of India and Hinduism very high.
Swami Vivekananda and Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda preached the message of strength and self- reliance. He asked the people to improve the lives of the poor and depressed classes. . He believed that service to mankind is service to God. . He founded the Ramkrishna Mission at Belur in Howrah in 1897. It is a social service and charitable society. . The objectives of this Mission are providing humanitarian relief and social work through the establishment of schools, colleges, hospitals and orphanages.
Theosophical Society . The Theosophical Society was founded in New York in 1875 by Madam H.P. Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott. Their main objectives were to form a universal brotherhood of man without any distinction of race, colour or creed and to promote the study of ancient religions and philosophies. They arrived in India and established their headquarters at Adyar in Madras in 1882. Later in 1893, Mrs. Annie Besant arrived in India and took over the leadership of the Society after the death of Olcott . Mrs. Annie Besant founded the Central Hindu School along with Madan Mohan Malaviya at Benaras which later developed into the Banaras Hindu University.
Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Pandit Ishwar Chandra was a great educator, humanist and social reformer. He rose to be the Head Pandit of the Bengali Department of Fort William College. He firmly believed that reform in Indian society could only come about through education Vidyasagar founded many schools for girls. He helped J.D. Bethune to establish the Bethune School. He founded the Metropolitan Institution in Calcutta. He protested against child marriage and favoured widow remarriage which was legalised by the Widow Remarriage Act (1856). It was due to his great support for the spread of education that he was given the title of Vidyasagar.
Jyotiba Phule Jyotiba Phule belonged to a low caste family in Maharashtra. He waged a life-long struggle against upper caste domination and Brahmanical supremacy. . In 1873 he founded the Satyashodak Samaj to fight against the caste system . He pioneered the widow remarriage movement in Maharashtra and worked for the education for women. . Jyotiba Phule and his wife established the first girls' school at Poona in 1851.
Aligarh Movement The Aligarh Movement was started by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan for the social and educational advancement of the Muslims in India . He fought against the medieval backwardness and advocated a rational approach towards religion. . In 1866, he started the Mohammadan Educational Conference as a general forum for spreading liberal ideas among the Muslims. I . n 1875, he founded a modern school at Aligarh to promote English education among the Muslims. This had later grown into the Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College and then into the Aligarh Muslim University.
Sikh Reform Movement Punjab also came under the spell of reforms. Baba Dayal Das founded the Nirankari Movement. He insisted the worship of God as nirankar (formless) The Namdhari Movement was founded by Baba Ram Singh. His followers wore white clothes and gave up meat eating. The Singh Sabhas started in Lahore and Amritsar in 1870 were aimed at reforming the Sikh society. They helped to set up the Khalsa College at Amritsar in 1892.They also encouraged Gurmukhi and Punjabi literature. In 1920, the Akalis started a movement to remove the corrupt Mahants (priests) from the Sikh gurudwaras.
Self-Respect Movement and Periyar E.V.R. . Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy was a great social reformer. In 1921, during the anti-liquor campaign he cut down 1000 coconut trees in his own farm. . In 1924, he took an active part in the Vaikam Satyagraha. The objective of the Satyagraha was to secure for untouchables the right to use a road near a temple at Vaikom in Kerala. . In 1925, he started the "Self-Respect Movement". The aims of the 'Self -Respect Movement' were to uplift the Dravidians and to expose the Brahminical tyrany and deceptive methods by which they controlled all spheres of Hindu life. He denounced the caste system and child marriage. He encouraged inter-caste marriages. He himself conducted many marriages without any rituals. Such a marriage was known as "Self- Respect Marriage." . He gave secular names to new born babies.
Self-Respect Movement and Periyar E.V.R. He attacked the laws of Manu, which he called the basis of the entire Hindu social fabric of caste. . He founded the Tamil journals Kudiarasu, Puratchi and Viduthalai to propagate his ideals. . In 1938 at Tamil Nadu Women's Conference appreciatin the noble service e was given the title "Periyar"". rendered by E.V.R. he was given the title "Periyar" . In 1970 by the UNESCO organisation praised and adorned with the title "Socrates of South Asia".