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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
Formation of the Muslim League (1906) In December 1906, Muslim delegates from all over India met at Dacca for the Muslim Educational Conference. Taking advantage of this occasion, Nawab Salimullah of Dacca proposed the setting up of an organisation to look after the Muslim interests. . The proposal was accepted. The All-India Muslim League was finally set up on December 30, 1906. Like the Indian National Congress, they conducted annual sessions and put their demands to the British government. Initially, they enjoyed the support of the British. . Their first achievement was the separate electorates for the Muslims in the Minto- Morley reforms.
The Lucknow Pact (1916) During the 1916 Congress session at Lucknow two major events occurred. . The divided Congress became united. An understanding for joint action against the British was reached between the Congress and the Muslim League and it was called the Lucknow Pact. . The signing of the Lucknow Pact by the Congress and the Muslim League in 1916 marked an important step in the Hindu-Muslim unity
The Home Rule Movement (1916) . Two Home Rule Leagues were established, one by B.G. Tilak at Poona in April 1916 and the other by Mrs. Annie Besant at Madras in September 1916. . The aim of the Movement was to get self- government for India within the British Empire. It believed freedom was the natural right of all nations. . Moreover, the leaders of the Home Movement thought that India's resources were not being used for her needs.
The Home Rule Movement (1916) The two Leagues cooperated with each other as well with the Congress and the Muslim League in putting their demand for home rule While Tilak's Movement concentrated on Maharashtra, Annie Besant's Movement covered the rest of the country. The Home Rule Movement had brought a new life in the national movement. There was a revival of Swadeshi. Women joined in larger numbers. On 20 August 1917, Montague, the Secretary of State in England, made a declaration in the Parliament of England on British Government's policy towards future political reforms in India. He promised the gradual development of self-governing institutions in India. This August Declaration led to the end of the Home Rule Movement
Revolutionary Movements . In the first half of the 20th century, revolutionary groups sprang up mainly in Bengal, Maharashtra, Punjab and Madras. The revolutionaries were not satisfied with the methods of both the moderates and extremists. Hence, they started many revolutionary secret organizations . In Bengal Anusilan Samiti and Jugantar were established. In Maharashtra Savarkar brothers had set up Abhinava Bharat. . In the Madras Presidency, Bharathmatha Association was started by Nilakanta Bramachari
Revolutionary Movements In Punjab Ajit Singh set up a secret society to spread revolutionary ideas among the youth . In London, at India House, Shyamji Krishna Verma gathered young Indian nationalists like Madan Lal Dhingra, Savarkar, V.V.S. lyer and T.S.S.Rajan. Lala Hardyal set up the 'Ghadar Party' in USA to organise revolutionary activities from outside India.