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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
Enforcement of the Subsidiary System
Hyderabad Hyderabad was the first state which was brought under Wellesley's Subsidiary System in 1798. .The treaty concluded in 1798 was an ad hoc measure. It fixed the amount to be paid annually at Rs.24 lakhs for the subsidiary force. . In accordance with the treaty, all the French troops in Hyderabad were disbanded and replaced by a subsidiary British force. . A new treaty was concluded in 1800 by which the Nizam ceded large territories to the Company
Oudh The threat of invasion by Zaman Shah of Afghanistan was the pretext for Wellesley to force the Nawab of Oudh to enter into a subsidiary treaty. Accordingly, the Nawab gave the British the rich lands of Rohilkhand, the lower Doab and Gorakhpur for the maintenance of an increased army which the British stationed in the capital of Oudh. The strength of Nawab's own army was reduced. For the maintenance of law and order the British were authorised to frame rules and regulations. By this, the British acquired the right to interfere in the internal matters of Oudh.
The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799) Tipu Sultan wanted to avenge his humiliating defeat and the terms imposed on him by the British . He also aimed at making Mysore a strong state. Tipu worked continuously to secure help to fight British imperialism. . He took efforts to seek the help of the France, Arabia, Kabul and Turkey. . He corresponded with the Revolutionary French Government in July 1798. At Srirangapattinam, a Jacobian Club was started and the flag of the French Republic was hoisted. The tree of Liberty was also planted. Later, when Napoleon came to power, Tipu received a friendly letter from Napoleon (who was in Egypt at that time).
The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799) Wellesley set out to persuade Tipu to accept a pact of subsidiary alliance and wrote letters requesting the Tipu to dismiss the French, to receive an English envoy, and to make terms with the Company and its allies. Tipu paid scant attention to Wellesley's letters and thus the Fourth Anglo-Mysore war started. The war was short and decisive. Tipu was forced to retreat to his capital Srirangapattinam . Although severely wounded, he fought till his capital Srirangapattinam was captured and he himself was shot dead
Mysore After the War With the fall of Tipu Sultan the kingdom of Mysore fell at the feet of Wellesley. He restored Hindu rule at the central part of the kingdom. . A five year old boy, Krishnaraja II, a descendant of the dethroned Hindu Raja, was enthroned at Mysore, which became the capital almost after two hundred years. Purnaiya, the previous minister, became Diwan. The remaining parts of the kingdom were divided between the British and the Nizam Tipu's family was sent to the fort of Vellore.
Wellesley and the Marathas . The only power that remained outside the purview of the subsidiary system was the Marathas. Nana Fadnavis provided the leadership to the Marathas. He was responsible for the preservation of independence of his country from the onslaught of the British. By extending a helping hand to Cornwallis against Tipu he was able to acquire a large slice of territory as the share of the Marathas from the kingdom of Mysore. . His death in 1800 removed the last great Maratha leader.
Wellesley and the Marathas . Peshwa Baji Rao lIl, despite his stately appearance and immense learning, lacked political wisdom. The infighting among the Maratha leaders proved to be self- destructive. . Jaswant Rao Holkar and Daulat Rao Scindia were fighting against each other. The Peshwa supported Scindia against Holkar. . Holkar marched against the Peshwa. The combined forces of Scindia and the Peshwa were utterly defeated. . The city of Poona fell at the feet of the victor who did not hesitate to commit all sorts of atrocities, including the torturing of rich inhabitants. With rich booty Holkar returned to his capital
Wellesley and the Marathas Peshwa Baji Rao ll was in great danger, so he fled to Bassein where he signed the Treaty of Bassein with the British in 1802. It was a subsidiary treaty and the Peshwa was recognized as the head of the Maratha kingdom. Although it was nominal, the treaty was considered the crowning triumph of Wellesley's Subsidiary System. . In accordance with this document, the foreign policy of the Marathas came under British control and therefore any action of the Maratha chiefs against the British was successfully prevented. . That is the reason why the Marathas considered the treaty as a document of surrendering their independence
The Second Maratha War (1803-1805) Daulat Rao Scindia and Raghoji Bhonsle took the Treaty of Bassein as an insult to the national honour of the Marathas. Soon the forces of both the chieftains were united and they crossed the river Narmada. Wellesley seized this opportunity and declared war in August 1803. . Arthur Wellesley captured Ahmadnagar in August 1803 and defeated the combined forces of Scindia and Bhonsle at Assaye near Aurangabad. Subsequently, . Arthur Wellesley carried the war into Bhonsle's territory and completely defeated the Maratha forces on the plains of Argaon. As a result, the Treaty of Deogaon was signed between Bhonsle and Wellesley. . The former signed the subsidiary treaty which forced him to give up the province of Cuttack in Orissa.