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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1905-1916)
Partition of Bengal and the Rise of Extremism . On 16 October 1905, when partition came into effect, the people of Bengal orgainsed The whole political life of Bengal underwent a change. The anti-partition movement protest meetings and observed a day of mourning. culminated into the Swadeshi Movement and spread to other parts of India. . The aggressive nationalists forced Dadabhai Naoroji to speak of Swaraj (which was not a Moderate demand) in the Calcutta Session of Congress in 1906. They adopted the resolutions of Boycott and Swadeshi. The Moderate Congressmen were unhappy. Theywanted Swaraj to be achieved through constitutional methods. The differences led to a split in the Congress at the Surat session in 1907. This is popularly known as the famous Surat Split. The extremists came out of the Congress led by Tilak and others.
Swadeshi Movement .The Swadeshi Movement involved programmes like the boycott of government service, courts, schools and colleges and of foreign goods, promotion of Swadeshi goods, Promotion of National Education through the establishment of national schools and colleges. It was both a political and economic movement. . The Swadeshi Movement was a great success. In Bengal, even the landlords joined the movement. The women and students took to picketing. . Students refused using books made of foreign paper.
Swadeshi Movement The government adopted several tough measures. It passed several Acts to crush the movement. The Swadeshi volunteers were beaten badly. The cry of Bande Mataram was forbidden in the movement or else their, aid would be stopped. . Schools and colleges were warned not to allow their students to take part . Some Indian government employees lost their jobs. .Extremist leaders Bala Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh were imprisoned and deported.
Achievements of Extremists They were the first to demand Swaraj as a matter of birth right. . They involved the masses in the freedom struggle and broadened the social base of the National Movement. They were the first to organize an all-India political movement, viz. the Swadeshi Movement.
Formation of the Muslim League (1906) In December 1906, Muslim delegates from all over India met at Dacca for the Muslim Educational Conference. Taking advantage of this occasion, Nawab Salimullah of Dacca proposed the setting up of an organisation to look after the Muslim interests. . The proposal was accepted. The All-India Muslim League was finally set up on December 30, 1906. Like the Indian National Congress, they conducted annual sessions and put their demands to the British government. Initially, they enjoyed the support of the British. . Their first achievement was the separate electorates for the Muslims in the Minto- Morley reforms.
The Lucknow Pact (1916) During the 1916 Congress session at Lucknow two major events occurred. . The divided Congress became united. An understanding for joint action against the British was reached between the Congress and the Muslim League and it was called the Lucknow Pact. . The signing of the Lucknow Pact by the Congress and the Muslim League in 1916 marked an important step in the Hindu-Muslim unity
The Home Rule Movement (1916) . Two Home Rule Leagues were established, one by B.G. Tilak at Poona in April 1916 and the other by Mrs. Annie Besant at Madras in September 1916. . The aim of the Movement was to get self- government for India within the British Empire. It believed freedom was the natural right of all nations. . Moreover, the leaders of the Home Movement thought that India's resources were not being used for her needs.
The Home Rule Movement (1916) The two Leagues cooperated with each other as well with the Congress and the Muslim League in putting their demand for home rule While Tilak's Movement concentrated on Maharashtra, Annie Besant's Movement covered the rest of the country. The Home Rule Movement had brought a new life in the national movement. There was a revival of Swadeshi. Women joined in larger numbers. On 20 August 1917, Montague, the Secretary of State in England, made a declaration in the Parliament of England on British Government's policy towards future political reforms in India. He promised the gradual development of self-governing institutions in India. This August Declaration led to the end of the Home Rule Movement
Revolutionary Movements In Punjab Ajit Singh set up a secret society to spread revolutionary ideas among the youth . In London, at India House, Shyamji Krishna Verma gathered young Indian nationalists like Madan Lal Dhingra, Savarkar, V.V.S. lyer and T.S.S.Rajan. Lala Hardyal set up the 'Ghadar Party' in USA to organise revolutionary activities from outside India.