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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) . In 1781, Warren Hastings dispatched British troops under the command of Captain Popham. . He defeated the Maratha chief, Mahadaji Scindia, in a number of small battles and captured Gwalior. Later in May 1782, the Treaty of Salbai was signed between Warren Hastings and Mahadaji Scindia. . Accordingly, Salsette and Bassein were given to the British. Raghunath Rao was pensioned off and Madhav Rao ll was accepted as the Peshwa.
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) The Treaty of Salbai established the British influence in Indian politics. . It provided the British twenty years of peace with the Marathas . The Treaty also enabled the British to exert pressure on Mysore with the help of the Marathas in recovering their territories from Haider Ali. Thus, the British, on the one hand, saved themselves from the combined opposition of Indian powers and on the other, succeeded in dividing the Indian powers.
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) The Treaty of Salba established the British influence in Indian politics. It provided the British twenty years of peace with the Marathas. The Treaty also enabled the British to exert pressure on Mysore with the help of the Marathas in recovering their territories from Haider Ali. Thus, the British, on the one hand, saved themselves from the combined opposition of Indian powers and on the other, succeeded in dividing the Indian powers.
The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84) . The first Anglo-Mysore War took place in 1767-69. . Haider Ali emerged victorious against the British and at the end of the War a defensive treaty was concluded between Haider Ali and the British. After eleven years, the Second Mysore War broke out.
The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84) Main causes for the second Anglo-Mysore War were: The British failed to fulfill the terms of the defensive treaty with Haider when he was attacked by the Marathas in 1771. There was an outbreak of hostilities between the English and the French (an ally of Haider) during the American War of Independence. The British captured Mahe, a French settlement within Haider's territories. . Haider Ali formed a grand alliance with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas against the British in 1779.
The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84) . The War began when the British led their forces through Haider's territory without his permission to capture Guntur in the Northern Sarkars. . Haider Ali defeated Colonel Baillie and captured Arcot in 1780. In the next year, Warren Hastings, by a clever stroke of diplomacy, divided the Confederacy. . He made peace with the Nizam, won the friendship of Bhonsle and came to an understanding with the Scindia (both Marathas). Consequently, Haider was isolated without any alliance. . He was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote at Porto Novo in March 1781. In December 1782, Haider died of cancer at the age of sixty . The Second Mysore War came to an end by the Treaty of Mangalore in 1783. Accordingly, all conquests were mutually restored and the prisoners on both sides were liberated.
Pitt's India Act, 1784 . A Board of Control consisting of six members was created. They were appointed by the Crown. The Court of Directors was retained without any alteration in its composition The Act also introduced significant changes in the Indian administration. It reduced the number of the members of the Governor-General's Council from four to three including the Commander-in-Chief.
Pitt's India Act, 1784 . Pitt's India Act constitutes a significant landmark with regard to the foreign policy of the Company. A critical review of the Act reveals that it had introduced a kind of contradiction in the functions of the Company. . The Court of Directors controlled its commercial functions, whereas the Board of Control maintained its political affairs . In fact, the Board represented the King, and the Directors symbolised the Company.
Warren Hastings . The Pitt's India Act of 1784 was a rude shock and bitter disappointment for Warren Hastings. The Prime Minister's speech censuring the policy of the Government of Bengal was considered by Warren Hastings as a reflection on his personal character. His image and reputation were tarnished in England. Therefore, he resigned and left India in June 1785. . In 1787, Warren Hastings was impeached in the Parliament by Edmund Burke and the Whigs for his administrative excess.