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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1917-1947)
Nehru Report (1928) . In the meanwhile, the Secretary of State, Lord Birkenhead, challenged the Indians to produce a Constitution that would be acceptable to all The challenge was accepted by the Congress, which convened an al party meeting on 28 February 1928. . A committee consisting of eight was constituted to draw up a blueprint for the future Constitution of India. It was headed by Motilal Nehru. . The Report published by this Committee came to be known as the Nehru Report.
Nehru Report (1928) The Report favoured: Dominion Status as the next immediate step . Full responsible government at the centre . Autonomy to the provinces . Clear cut division of power between the centre and the provinces A bicameral legislature at the centre
Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934) In the prevailing atmosphere of restlessness, the annual session of the Congress was held at Lahore in December 1929. During this session presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru the Congress passed the Poorna Swaraj resolution. Moreover, as the government failed to accept the Nehru Report, the Congress gave a call to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement. The Congress had also observed January 26, 1930 as the Day of Independence. Since then January 26 had been observed as a day of independence every year. . The same date later became the Republic Day when the Indian Constitution was enforced in 1950
The Dandi March . On 12 March 1930, Gandhi began his famous March to Dandi with his chosen 79 followers to break the salt laws. He reached the coast of Dandi on 5 April 1930 after marching a distance of 200 miles and on 6 April formally launched the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the salt laws. .On 9 April, Mahatma Gandhi laid out the programme of the movement which included making of salt in every village in violation of the existing salt laws; picketing by women before the shops selling liquor, opium and foreign clothes; organising the bonfires of foreign clothes; spinning clothes by using charkha fighting untouchability; boycotting of schools and colleges by students and resigning from government jobs by the people. Over and above all these, the programme also called upon the people not to pay taxes to the government
Round Table Conference The British government adopted the strategy of talking to different political parties by convening the Round Table Conferences. The first Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 at London and it was boycotted it by the Congress. . In January 1931 in order to create a conducive atmosphere for talks, the government lifted the ban on the Congress Party and released its leaders from prison. On 8 March 1931 the Gandhi-lrwin Pact was signed. As per this pact, Mahatma Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil-Disobedience Movement and participate in the Second- Round Table Conference.
Round Table Conference . In September 1931, the Second Round Table Conference was held at London. Mahatma Gandhi participated in the Conference but returned to India disappointed as no agreement could be reached on the demand of complete independence and on the communal question In January 1932, the Civil-Disobedience Movement was resumed. The government responded to it by arresting Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel and by reimposing the ban on the Congress party
Poona Pact (1932) By 1930, Dr Ambedkar had become a leader of national stature championing the cause of the depressed people of the country While presenting a real picture of the condition of these people in the First Round Table Conference, he had demanded separate electorates for them. .On 16 August 1932 the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald made an announcement, which came to be as the Communal Award. According to this award, the depressed classes were considered as a separate community and as such provisions were made for separate electorates for them. Mahatma Gandhi protested against the Communal Award and went on a fast unto death in the Yeravada jail on 20 September 1932.
Poona Pact (1932) . Finally, an agreement was reached between Dr Ambedkar and Gandhi. This agreement came to be called as the Poona Pact. The British Government also approved of it Accordingly, 148 seats in different Provincial Legislatures were reserved for the Depressed Classes in place of 71 as provided in the Communal Award . The third Round Table Conference came to an end in 1932. The Congress once more did not take part in it. Nonetheless, in March 1933, the British Government issueda White Paper, which became the basis for the enactment of the Government of India Act, 1935
Individual Satyagraha . During the course of the Second World War in order to secure the cooperation of the Indians, the British Government made an announcement on 8 August 1940, which came to be known as the 'August Offer' . The August Offer envisaged that after the War a representative body of Indians would be set up to frame the new Constitution. Gandhi was not satisfied with is offer and decided to launch Individual Satyagraha . Individual Satyagraha was limited, symbolic and non-violent in nature and it was left to Mahatma Gandhi to choose the Satyagrahis. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first to offer Satyagraha and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment. Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahi and imprisoned for four months. The individual Satyagraha continued for nearly 15 months
Cripps Mission (1942) The major political parties of the country rejected the Cripps proposals. Gandhi called Cripp's proposals as a "Post-dated Cheque". . They did not like the rights of the Princely States either to send their representatives to the Constituent Assembly or to stay out of the Indian Union. The Muslim League was also dissatisfied as its demand for Pakistan had not been conceded in the proposal
Quit India Movement (1942-1944) In 1943, as the movement gained further momentum, there were armed attacks on government buildings in Madras and Bengal. . In 1944 Mahatma Gandhi was released from jail. Quit India Movement was the final attempt for country's freedom. . The British Government ordered for 538 rounds of firing. Nearly 60,229 persons were jailed. At least 7,000 people were killed. This movement paved the way for India's freedom. It aroused among Indians the feelings of bravery, enthusiasm and total sacrifice.
Indian National Army During the course of the Second World War, armed revolutionary activities continued to take place. On 2 July 1943, Subhas Chandra Bose reached Singapore and gave the rousing war cry of 'Dilli Chalo' . He was made the President of Indian Independence League and soon became the supreme commander of the Indian National Army. He gave the country the slogan of Jai Hind. The names of the INA's three Brigades were the Subhas Brigade, Gandhi Brigade and Nehru Brigade. The women's wing of the army was named after Rani Laxmibai.
Indian National Army The Indian National Army marched towards Imphal after registering its victory over Kohima. After Japan's surrender in 1945, the INA failed in its efforts. Under such circumstances, Subhas went to Taiwan. Then on his way to Tokyo he died on 18 August 1945 in a plane crash . The trial of the soldiers of INA was held at Red Fort in Delhi. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai and Tej Bahadur Sapru fought the case on behalf of the soldiers.
Cabinet Mission (1946) .After the Second World War, Lord Atlee became the Prime Minister of England. On 15 March, 1946 Lord Atlee made a historic announcement in which the right to self-determination and the framing of a Constitution for India were conceded Consequently, three members of the British Cabinet Pathick Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander - were sent to India. This is known as the Cabinet Mission. The Cabinet Mission put forward a plan for solution of the constitutional problem. Provision was made for three groups of provinces to possess their separate constitutions