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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
LORD DALHOUSIE (1848-1856)
Annexation of Oudh The British relations with the state of Oudh go back to the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765. . Right from Warren Hastings, many Governor-Generals advised the Nawab of Oudh to improve the administration. But, misrule continued there and the Nawab was under the assumption that the British would not annex Oudh because of his loyalty to them. After surveying the situation in Oudh, Dalhousie annexed it in 1856. Nawab Wajid Ali was granted a pension of 12 lakhs of rupees per year. The annexed territory came under the control of a Chief Commissioner.
Annexation of Oudh Dalhousie's annexation of Oudh, the last one among his annexations, created great political danger. The annexation offended the Muslim elite. . More dangerous was the effect on the British army's Indian troops, many of whom came from Oudh, They had occupied a privileged position before its annexation Under the British Government they were treated as equals with the rest of the population . This is a loss of prestige for them. In these various ways, the annexation of Oudh contributed to the Mutiny of 1857
RailwaysS . The introduction railways in India inaugurated a new economic era. There were three major reasons for the British to take interest in its quick development The first reason was commercial. The second main reason was administrative The third reason was defense. At the time of revolt and disturbance, movement of the forces was much easier through railways.
RailwaysS Lord Dalhousie started the "guarantee system" by which the railway companies were guaranteed a minimum interest of five percent on their investment. . The government retained the right of buying the railway at the end of the period of contract. The first railway line connecting Bombay with Thane was opened in 1853. Railway lines connecting from Calcutta to the Raniganj coal-fields was opened in 1854 and from Madras to Arakkonam in 1856.
Telegraph Similarly, the use of Telegraph brought marvelous changes in communication system Main cities of the country viz., Calcutta, Peshawar, Bombay and Madras were telegraphically connected. About 4000 miles long Telegraph lines were laid before the departure of Dalhousie. During the 1857 Revolt, the system of telegraphic communication proved a boon for the English and the military value of Dalhousie's creation was much realized at that time.
Postal Reform The foundation of modern postal system was laid down by Lord Dalhousie. . A new Post Office Act was passed in 1854. . Consequently, irrespective of the distance over which the letter was sent, a uniform rate of half an anna per post card was charged throughout India. . Postage stamps were introduced for the first time.
Education . Dalhousie had also evinced in the development of education. The educational Despatch of Sir Charles Wood (1854) was considered the "Intelectual Charter of India". It provided an outline for the comprehensive scheme of education at primary, secondary and collegiate levels. . Dalhousie fully accepted the views of Charles Wood and took steps to carry out the new scheme. Departments of Public Instructions were organized. . The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were founded in 1857.
Public Works Department . Before the period of Dalhousie, the job of the Public Works Department was done by the Military Board. . Dalhousie created a separate Public Works Department and allotted more funds for cutting canals and roads. The Upper Ganges Canal was completed in 1854. Many bridges were constructed. . By modernizing the Public Works Department he laid the foundations of the engineering service in India.