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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
About Me . Bachelors and Masters in Physics from Indian Institute of Science (ISc), Bangalore .INSPIRE Scholar, DST Govt. of India Interested in Physics, current affairs, economics.... . Physicist, Blogger, Teacher.... Wrote UPSC CSE Mains 2017 Research Publication in Journal of Applied Physics
INDIA UNDER THE ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY: WARREN HASTINGS (1772-1785)
Reforms of Warren Hastings . When Warren Hastings assumed the administration of Bengal in 1772, he found it in utter chaos. . The financial position of the Company became worse and the difficulties were intensified by famine. Therefore, Warren Hastings realized the immediate need for introducing reforms
Abolition of the Dual System The East India Company decided to act as Diwan and to undertake the collection of revenue by its own agents. Hence, the Dual System introduced by Robert Clive was abolished. . As a measure to improve the finances of the Company, Warren Hastings reduced the Nawab's allowance of 32 lakhs of rupees to half that amount. He also stopped the annual payment of 26 lakhs given to the Mughal Empero
Revenue Reforms After the abolition of the Dual System, the responsibility of collecting the revenue fell on the shoulders of the Company. For that purpose, a Board of Revenue was established at Calcutta to supervise the collection of revenue. . English Collectors were appointed in each district. The treasury was removed from Murshidabad to Calcutta and an Accountant General was appointed. Calcutta thus became the capital of Bengal in 1772 and shortly after of British India.
Revenue Reforms The Board of Revenue farmed out the lands by auction for a period of five years instead of one year in order to find out their real value. The zamindars were given priority in the auction. . However, certain good measures were taken to safeguard the interests of the peasants. Arbitrary cesses and unreasonable fines were abolished. Besides, restrictions were imposed on the enhancement of rent. Yet, the system was a failure. . Many zamindars defaulted and the arrears of revenue accumulated.
Reorganisation of the Judicial System The judicial system at the time of Warren Hastings' ascendancy was a store-house of abuses. The Nawab who was hitherto the chief administrator of justice, misused his powers. Often, his judgments were careless . The zamindars who acted as judges at lower levels within their own areas were highly corrupt and prejudiced. On the whole, the judicial institution suffered from extreme corruption
Reorganisation of the Judicial System Warren Hastings felt the necessity of reorganising the judicial system. Each district was provided with a civil court under the Collector and a criminal court under an Indian Judge. To hear appeals from the district courts two appellate courts, one for civil cases and another for criminal cases, were established at Calcutta. The highest civil court of appeal was called Sadar Diwani Adalat, which was to be presided over by the Governor and two judges recruited from among the members of his council. Similarly, the highest appellate criminal court was known as Sadar Nizamat Adalat which was to function under an Indian judge appointed by the Governor-in-Council
Trade Regulations and other Reforms Warren Hastings abolished the system of dastaks, or free passes and regulated the internal trade. . He reduced the number of custom houses and enforced a uniform tariff of 2.5 percent for Indian and non-Indian goods. Private trade by the Company's servants continued but within enforceable limits. Weavers were given better treatment and facilities were made to improve their condition A bank was started in Calcutta. He improved the police in Calcutta and the dacoits were severely dealt with.
The Regulating Act of 1773 The Regulating Act of 1773 opened a new chapter in the constitutional history of the Company. Previously, the Home government in England consisted of the Court of Directors and the Court of Proprietors. The Court of Directors were elected annually and practically managed the affairs of the Company. . In India, each of the three presidencies was independent and responsible only to the Home Government. The government of the presidency was conducted by a Governor and a Council.
The Regulating Act of 1773 The following conditions invited the Parliamentary intervention in the Company's affairs . The English East India Company became a territorial power when it acquired a wide dominion in India and also the Diwani rights. Its early administration was not only corrupt but notorious. . When the Company was in financial trouble, its servants were affluent. The disastrous famine which broke out in Bengal in 1770 affected the agriculturists. As a result, the revenue collection was poor. In short, the Company was on the brink of bankruptcy.
Provisions of the Act The term of office of the members of the Court of Directors was extended from one year to four years. One-fourth of them were to retire every year and the retiring Directors were not eligible for re-election. . The Governor of Bengal was styled the Governor-General of Fort Willianm whose tenure of office was for a period of five years. .A council of four members was appointed to assist the Governor-General. The government was to be conducted in accordance with the decision of the majority. The Governor- General had a casting vote in case of a tie.
The Rohilla War (1774) . Rohilkand was a small kingdom situated in between Oudh and the Marathas. Its ruler was Hafiz Rahmat Khan. . He concluded a defensive treaty in 1772 with the Nawab of Oudh fearing an attack by the Marathas. But no such attack took place. But, the Nawab demanded money. When Rahmat Khan evaded, the Nawab with the help of the British invaded Rohilkand. . Warren Hastings, who sent the British troops against Rohilkand was severely crticised for his policy on Rohilla affair.
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) . In 1781, Warren Hastings dispatched British troops under the command of Captain Popham. . He defeated the Maratha chief, Mahadaji Scindia, in a number of small battles and captured Gwalior. Later in May 1782, the Treaty of Salbai was signed between Warren Hastings and Mahadaji Scindia. . Accordingly, Salsette and Bassein were given to the British. Raghunath Rao was pensioned off and Madhav Rao ll was accepted as the Peshwa.
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) The Treaty of Salbai established the British influence in Indian politics. . It provided the British twenty years of peace with the Marathas . The Treaty also enabled the British to exert pressure on Mysore with the help of the Marathas in recovering their territories from Haider Ali. Thus, the British, on the one hand, saved themselves from the combined opposition of Indian powers and on the other, succeeded in dividing the Indian powers.
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) The Treaty of Salba established the British influence in Indian politics. It provided the British twenty years of peace with the Marathas. The Treaty also enabled the British to exert pressure on Mysore with the help of the Marathas in recovering their territories from Haider Ali. Thus, the British, on the one hand, saved themselves from the combined opposition of Indian powers and on the other, succeeded in dividing the Indian powers.
The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84) . The War began when the British led their forces through Haider's territory without his permission to capture Guntur in the Northern Sarkars. . Haider Ali defeated Colonel Baillie and captured Arcot in 1780. In the next year, Warren Hastings, by a clever stroke of diplomacy, divided the Confederacy. . He made peace with the Nizam, won the friendship of Bhonsle and came to an understanding with the Scindia (both Marathas). Consequently, Haider was isolated without any alliance. . He was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote at Porto Novo in March 1781. In December 1782, Haider died of cancer at the age of sixty . The Second Mysore War came to an end by the Treaty of Mangalore in 1783. Accordingly, all conquests were mutually restored and the prisoners on both sides were liberated.
Pitt's India Act, 1784 . Pitt's India Act constitutes a significant landmark with regard to the foreign policy of the Company. A critical review of the Act reveals that it had introduced a kind of contradiction in the functions of the Company. . The Court of Directors controlled its commercial functions, whereas the Board of Control maintained its political affairs . In fact, the Board represented the King, and the Directors symbolised the Company.