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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
Main Features of Subsidiary Alliance The protected state should cut off its connection with European powers other than the English and with the French in particular. The state was also forbidden to have any political contact even with other Indian powers without the permission of the British. The ruler of the protected state should keep a British Resident at his court and disband his own army. He should not employ Europeans in his service without the sanction of the paramount power The paramount power should not interfere in the internal affairs of the protected state.
Benefits to the British . Wellesley's Subsidiary System is regarded as one of the master- strokes of British imperialism It increased the military strength of the Company in India at the expense of the protected states. The territories of the Company were free from the ravages of war thereby establishing the stability of the British power in India. . The position of the British was strengthened against its Indian and non-Indian enemies . Under the system, expansion of British power became easy. Thus Wellesley's diplomacy made the British the paramount power in India.
Defects of the Subsidiary System . The immediate effect of the establishment of subsidiary forces was the introduction of anarchy because of the unemployment of thousands of soldiers sent away by the Indian princes. . The subsidiary system had a demoralizing effect on the princes of the protected states. Safeguarded against external danger and internal revolt, they neglected their administrative responsibilities. They preferred to lead easy-going and pleasure- seeking lives. As a result misgovernment followed. In course of time, the anarchy and misrule in several states had resulted in their annexation by the British. Thus, the subsidiary system proved to be a preparation for annexation. . The British collected very heavy subsidies from the protected princes and this had adversely affected their economy.
Enforcement of the Subsidiary System
Hyderabad Hyderabad was the first state which was brought under Wellesley's Subsidiary System in 1798. .The treaty concluded in 1798 was an ad hoc measure. It fixed the amount to be paid annually at Rs.24 lakhs for the subsidiary force. . In accordance with the treaty, all the French troops in Hyderabad were disbanded and replaced by a subsidiary British force. . A new treaty was concluded in 1800 by which the Nizam ceded large territories to the Company
Oudh The threat of invasion by Zaman Shah of Afghanistan was the pretext for Wellesley to force the Nawab of Oudh to enter into a subsidiary treaty. Accordingly, the Nawab gave the British the rich lands of Rohilkhand, the lower Doab and Gorakhpur for the maintenance of an increased army which the British stationed in the capital of Oudh. The strength of Nawab's own army was reduced. For the maintenance of law and order the British were authorised to frame rules and regulations. By this, the British acquired the right to interfere in the internal matters of Oudh.
The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799) Tipu Sultan wanted to avenge his humiliating defeat and the terms imposed on him by the British . He also aimed at making Mysore a strong state. Tipu worked continuously to secure help to fight British imperialism. . He took efforts to seek the help of the France, Arabia, Kabul and Turkey. . He corresponded with the Revolutionary French Government in July 1798. At Srirangapattinam, a Jacobian Club was started and the flag of the French Republic was hoisted. The tree of Liberty was also planted. Later, when Napoleon came to power, Tipu received a friendly letter from Napoleon (who was in Egypt at that time).
The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799) Wellesley set out to persuade Tipu to accept a pact of subsidiary alliance and wrote letters requesting the Tipu to dismiss the French, to receive an English envoy, and to make terms with the Company and its allies. Tipu paid scant attention to Wellesley's letters and thus the Fourth Anglo-Mysore war started. The war was short and decisive. Tipu was forced to retreat to his capital Srirangapattinam . Although severely wounded, he fought till his capital Srirangapattinam was captured and he himself was shot dead
Mysore After the War With the fall of Tipu Sultan the kingdom of Mysore fell at the feet of Wellesley. He restored Hindu rule at the central part of the kingdom. . A five year old boy, Krishnaraja II, a descendant of the dethroned Hindu Raja, was enthroned at Mysore, which became the capital almost after two hundred years. Purnaiya, the previous minister, became Diwan. The remaining parts of the kingdom were divided between the British and the Nizam Tipu's family was sent to the fort of Vellore.
Wellesley and the Marathas . Peshwa Baji Rao lIl, despite his stately appearance and immense learning, lacked political wisdom. The infighting among the Maratha leaders proved to be self- destructive. . Jaswant Rao Holkar and Daulat Rao Scindia were fighting against each other. The Peshwa supported Scindia against Holkar. . Holkar marched against the Peshwa. The combined forces of Scindia and the Peshwa were utterly defeated. . The city of Poona fell at the feet of the victor who did not hesitate to commit all sorts of atrocities, including the torturing of rich inhabitants. With rich booty Holkar returned to his capital
Wellesley and the Marathas . As an immediate response to the Treaty of Bassein, the British troops marched under the command of Arthur Wellesley towards Poona and restored the Peshwa to his position. The forces of Holkar vanished from the Maratha capital