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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1905-1916)
Causes for the Rise of Extremism The failure of the Moderates to win any notable success other than the expansion of the legislative councils by the Indian Councils Act (1892) The famine and plague of 1896-97 which affected the whole country and the suffering of the masses. The economic conditions of the people became worse. The ill-treatment of Indians in South Africa on the basis of colour of skin. . The Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5 in which Japan defeated the European power Russia. This encouraged Indians to fight against the European nation, Britain
Causes for the Rise of Extremism The immediate cause for the rise of extremism was the reactionary rule of Lord Curzon: He passed the Calcutta Corporation Act, (1899) reducing the Indian control of this local body. The Universities Act (1904) reduced the elected members in the University bodies. It also reduced the autonomy of the universities and made them government departments The Sedition Act and the Official Secrets Act reduced the freedoms of all people His worst measure was the Partition of Bengal (1905)
Methods of the Extremists The Extremists had no faith in the British sense of justice and fair play. They pointed out the forceful means by which the British had taken control of India. They believed that political rights will have to be fought for. They had the spirit of self-reliance and self- determination Their method included not cooperating with the British Government by boycotting government courts, schools and colleges Promotion of Swadeshi and boycott of foreign goods Introduction and promotion of national education
Leaders of the Extremists The extremists were led by Bala Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipinchandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh Bal Gangadhar Tilak is regarded as the real founder of the popular anti-British movement in India. He was known as 'Lokamanya' . He attacked the British through his weeklies The Mahratta and the Kesari. He was jailed twice by the British for his nationalist activities and in 1908 deported to Mandalay for six years. . He set up the Home Rule League in 1916 at Poona and declared "Swaraj is my birth-right and I will have it."
Leaders of the Extremists Lala Lajpat Rai is popularly known as the 'Lion of Punjab'. He played an important role in the Swadeshi Movement. He founded the Indian Home Rule League in the US in 1916. He was deported to Mandalay on the ground of sedition. He received fatal injuries while leading a procession against the Simon Commission and died on November 17, 1928. Bipan Chandra Pal began his career as a moderate and turned an extremist. He played an important role in the Swadeshi Movement. He preached nationalism through the nook and corner of Indian by his powerful speeches and writings. Aurobinda Ghosh was another extremist leader and he actively participated in the Swadeshi Movement. He was also imprisoned. After his release he settled in the French territory of Pondicherry and concentrated on spiritual activities.
Partition of Bengal and the Rise of Extremism Curzon's real motives for partition of Bengal were: To break the growing strength of Bengali nationalism since Bengal was the base of Indian nationalism To divide the Hindus and Muslims in Bengal. To show the enormous power of the British Government in doing whatever it liked
Partition of Bengal and the Rise of Extremism . On 16 October 1905, when partition came into effect, the people of Bengal orgainsed The whole political life of Bengal underwent a change. The anti-partition movement protest meetings and observed a day of mourning. culminated into the Swadeshi Movement and spread to other parts of India. . The aggressive nationalists forced Dadabhai Naoroji to speak of Swaraj (which was not a Moderate demand) in the Calcutta Session of Congress in 1906. They adopted the resolutions of Boycott and Swadeshi. The Moderate Congressmen were unhappy. Theywanted Swaraj to be achieved through constitutional methods. The differences led to a split in the Congress at the Surat session in 1907. This is popularly known as the famous Surat Split. The extremists came out of the Congress led by Tilak and others.
Swadeshi Movement .The Swadeshi Movement involved programmes like the boycott of government service, courts, schools and colleges and of foreign goods, promotion of Swadeshi goods, Promotion of National Education through the establishment of national schools and colleges. It was both a political and economic movement. . The Swadeshi Movement was a great success. In Bengal, even the landlords joined the movement. The women and students took to picketing. . Students refused using books made of foreign paper.
Achievements of Extremists They were the first to demand Swaraj as a matter of birth right. . They involved the masses in the freedom struggle and broadened the social base of the National Movement. They were the first to organize an all-India political movement, viz. the Swadeshi Movement.
The Lucknow Pact (1916) During the 1916 Congress session at Lucknow two major events occurred. . The divided Congress became united. An understanding for joint action against the British was reached between the Congress and the Muslim League and it was called the Lucknow Pact. . The signing of the Lucknow Pact by the Congress and the Muslim League in 1916 marked an important step in the Hindu-Muslim unity
Revolutionary Movements . In the first half of the 20th century, revolutionary groups sprang up mainly in Bengal, Maharashtra, Punjab and Madras. The revolutionaries were not satisfied with the methods of both the moderates and extremists. Hence, they started many revolutionary secret organizations . In Bengal Anusilan Samiti and Jugantar were established. In Maharashtra Savarkar brothers had set up Abhinava Bharat. . In the Madras Presidency, Bharathmatha Association was started by Nilakanta Bramachari
Revolutionary Movements In Punjab Ajit Singh set up a secret society to spread revolutionary ideas among the youth . In London, at India House, Shyamji Krishna Verma gathered young Indian nationalists like Madan Lal Dhingra, Savarkar, V.V.S. lyer and T.S.S.Rajan. Lala Hardyal set up the 'Ghadar Party' in USA to organise revolutionary activities from outside India.