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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1917-1947)
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) The movement began with Mahatma Gandhi renouncing the titles, which were given by the British. Other leaders and influential persons also followed him by surrendering their honorary posts and titles. . Students came out of the government educational institutions. National schools such as the Kashi Vidyapeeth, the Bihar Vidyapeeth and the Jamia Millia Islamia were set up . All the prominent leaders of the country gave up their lucrative legal practice. Legislatures were boycotted. No leader of the Congress came forward to contest the elections for the Legislatures
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) . In 1921, mass demonstrations were held against the Prince of Wales during his tour of India. The government resorted to strong measures of repression Many leaders were arrested. . The Congress and the Khilafat Committees were proclaimed as illegal. At several places, bonfires of foreign clothes were organised. The message of Swadeshi spread everywhere. Most of the households took to weaving cloths with the help of charkhas
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) . But the whole movement was abruptly called off on 11 February 1922 by Gandhi following the Churi Chaura incident in the Gorakpur district of U.P. Earlier on 5 February an angry mob set fire to the police station at Churi Chaura and twenty two police men were burnt to death. Many top leaders of the country were stunned at this sudden suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement. Mahatma Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922
Significance of the Non-Cooperation Movement It was the real mass movement with the participation of different sections of Indian society such as peasants, workers, students, teachers and women It witnessed the spread of nationalism to the remote corners of India. . It also marked the height of Hindu-Muslim unity as a result of the merger of Khilafat movement. . It demonstrated the willingness and ability of the masses to endure hardships and make sacrifices.
Swaraj Party . The suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement led to a split within Congress in the Gaya session of the Congress in December 1922. . Leaders like Motilal Nehru and Chittranjan Das formed a separate group within the Congress known as the Swaraj Party on 1 January 1923. . The Swarajists wanted to contest the council elections and wreck the government from within, . Elections to Legislative Councils were held in November 1923. In this, the Swaraj Party gained impressive successes. . In the Central Legislative Council Motilal Nehru became the leader of the party whereas in Bengal the party was headed by C.R. Das.
Swaraj Party The Swaraj Party did several significant things in the Legislative Council It demanded the setting up of responsible government in India with the necessary changes in the Government of India Act of 1919. . The party could pass important resolutions against the repressive laws of the government. . After the passing away of C.R. Das in June 1925, the Swarj Party started weakening
Simon Commission (1927) The Act of 1919 included a provision for its review after a lapse of ten years. However, the review commission was appointed by the British Government two years earlier of its schedule in 1927. . It came to be known as Simon Commission after the name of its chairman, Sir John Simon. All its seven members were Englishmen. . As there was no Indian member in it, the Commission faced a lot of criticism even before its landing in India. . Almost all the political parties including the Congress decided to oppose the Commission
Simon Commission (1927) . When the Commission reached Bombay, a general hartal was observed all over the country. Everywhere it was greeted with black flags and the cries of Simon go back' At Lahore, the students took out a large anti-Simon Commission demonstration on 30 October 1928 under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai. In this demonstration, Lala Lajpat Rai was seriously injured in the police lathi charge and he passed away after one month.
Simon Commission (1927) The report of the Simon Commission was published in May 1930. It was stated that the constitutional experiment with Dyarchy was unsuccessful and in its place the report recommended the establishment of autonomous government. There is no doubt that the Simon Commission's Report became the basis for enacting the Government of India Act of 1935
Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934) In the prevailing atmosphere of restlessness, the annual session of the Congress was held at Lahore in December 1929. During this session presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru the Congress passed the Poorna Swaraj resolution. Moreover, as the government failed to accept the Nehru Report, the Congress gave a call to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement. The Congress had also observed January 26, 1930 as the Day of Independence. Since then January 26 had been observed as a day of independence every year. . The same date later became the Republic Day when the Indian Constitution was enforced in 1950
Round Table Conference . In September 1931, the Second Round Table Conference was held at London. Mahatma Gandhi participated in the Conference but returned to India disappointed as no agreement could be reached on the demand of complete independence and on the communal question In January 1932, the Civil-Disobedience Movement was resumed. The government responded to it by arresting Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel and by reimposing the ban on the Congress party
Poona Pact (1932) . Finally, an agreement was reached between Dr Ambedkar and Gandhi. This agreement came to be called as the Poona Pact. The British Government also approved of it Accordingly, 148 seats in different Provincial Legislatures were reserved for the Depressed Classes in place of 71 as provided in the Communal Award . The third Round Table Conference came to an end in 1932. The Congress once more did not take part in it. Nonetheless, in March 1933, the British Government issueda White Paper, which became the basis for the enactment of the Government of India Act, 1935
The Second World War and National Movement In 1937 elections were held under the provisions of the Government of India Act of 1935. Congress Ministries were formed in seven states of India. . On 1 September 1939 the Second World War broke out. The British Government without consulting the people of India involved the country in the war. . The Congress vehemently opposed it and as a mark of protest the Congress Ministries in the Provinces resigned on 12 December 1939. . The Muslim League celebrated that day as the Deliverance Day. In March 1940 the Muslim League demanded the creation of Pakistan
Individual Satyagraha . During the course of the Second World War in order to secure the cooperation of the Indians, the British Government made an announcement on 8 August 1940, which came to be known as the 'August Offer' . The August Offer envisaged that after the War a representative body of Indians would be set up to frame the new Constitution. Gandhi was not satisfied with is offer and decided to launch Individual Satyagraha . Individual Satyagraha was limited, symbolic and non-violent in nature and it was left to Mahatma Gandhi to choose the Satyagrahis. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first to offer Satyagraha and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment. Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahi and imprisoned for four months. The individual Satyagraha continued for nearly 15 months
Quit India Movement (1942-1944) At this time, leadership was provided by Ram Manohar Lohia, Achyuta and S.M. Joshi. The role of Jayaprakash Narain in this movement was important. . Large number of students also left their schools and colleges to join the movement. The youth of the nation also participated in this movement with patriotism. Strikes, demonstrations and public meetings were organised in various towns and cities. Slowly the movement reached the rural areas
Indian National Army During the course of the Second World War, armed revolutionary activities continued to take place. On 2 July 1943, Subhas Chandra Bose reached Singapore and gave the rousing war cry of 'Dilli Chalo' . He was made the President of Indian Independence League and soon became the supreme commander of the Indian National Army. He gave the country the slogan of Jai Hind. The names of the INA's three Brigades were the Subhas Brigade, Gandhi Brigade and Nehru Brigade. The women's wing of the army was named after Rani Laxmibai.
Cabinet Mission (1946) .After the Second World War, Lord Atlee became the Prime Minister of England. On 15 March, 1946 Lord Atlee made a historic announcement in which the right to self-determination and the framing of a Constitution for India were conceded Consequently, three members of the British Cabinet Pathick Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander - were sent to India. This is known as the Cabinet Mission. The Cabinet Mission put forward a plan for solution of the constitutional problem. Provision was made for three groups of provinces to possess their separate constitutions
Cabinet Mission (1946) . The Cabinet Mission also proposed the formation of a Union of India, comprising both the British India and the Princely States. The Union would remain in charge of only foreign affairs, defence and communications leaving the residuary powers to be vested in the provinces. A proposal was envisaged for setting up an Interim Government, which would remain in office till a new government was elected on the basis of the new Constitution framed by the Constituent Assembly. . Both the Muslim League and the Congress accepted the plan.
Mountbatten Plan (1947) On 20 February 1947, Prime Minister Atlee announced in the House of Commons the definite intention of the British Government to transfer power to responsible Indian hands by a date not later than June 1948. Thus, to effect the transference of that power Atlee decided to send Lord Mountbatten as Viceroy to India. Lord Mountbatten armed with vast powers became India's Viceroy on 24 March 1947. The partition of India and the creation of Pakistan appeared inevitable to him. After extensive consultation Lord Mountbatten put forth the plan of partition of India on 3 June 1947. The Congress and the Muslim League ultimately approved the Mountbatten Plan.